Browse all references

Welcome to the references section of the UK MPA Centre. Here you can browse over 300 references, including peer-reviewed publications, special reports, grey literature and case studies relating to MPA design, principles relevant to the selection of MPAs, the effects of MPAs and the evaluation of MPA success. It is also possible to search MPA References. Links to documents are provided, where available. If you have a comment or an article you would like to see added to this list, please contact info@ukmpas.org.uk

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Full ReferenceBreen, J. 2008. Restoration of sites-Strangford Lough. .
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Summary This presentation presents the historical background to the degradation and infraction process relating to the impacts of fishing on Modiolus beds in Strangford Lough. Joe Breen also presents the plan for restoration and outlines performance measures.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceKay, L. 2008. Awareness raising in Pen Llyn a'r Sarnau SAC. .
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Summary Presentation summarizing efforts to raise awareness of Pen Llŷn a'r Sarnau SAC and associated coastal environments.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceDavis, C. 2008. Marine Protected Areas - Communicating the different designations. .
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Summary Presentation that outlines MPA structure and types and stresses need for support of Finding Sanctuary in developing MCZs.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceQuigley, M 2008. The Future for EMS Project Officers... .
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Summary Presentation describing the current roles and challenges of EMS officers and which roles may be required in the future.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceMitchell, K. 2008. Natural England's Marine Campaign. .
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Summary Presentation describing the challenges Natural England faces in the creation of MPAs and how some of their campaign objectives are attempting to overcome them.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHoldaway, E. 2008. New Guidance for coastal protected landscapes: opportunities for European Marine Sites. .
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Summary Presentation on Europarc and its activities in creating European MPA networks.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceSampson, B. & Lannin, A. 2008. Relationships with authorities - experience and learning from the field. .
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Summary Describes the responsibilities of EMS authorities and their relationship to EMS officers.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCoye, M. 2008. Improving Water Quality in European Marine Sites -Just a Pipe Dream? .
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Summary Natural England's efforts to improve water quality at EMSs by obtaining evidence and understanding impacts, reducing pollution loads and developing new tools.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceDerriman, E. & McNair, S. 2008. Towed Demersal Gear & Scalloping -Case Study from the Fal & Helford. .
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Summary Examines the background and reasons behind Natural England not closing the Fal & Helford scallop fishery until 2007.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceSmith, K. 2008. Marine non-natives and the Menai Strait mussel fishery: A Code of Good Practice. .
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Summary Outlines a code of conduct for mussell fisheries in the Menai Straight SAC, including recommendations to reduce the introduction of non-native species.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCurry, K. 2008. Coastal Development ~levies on new build to offset pressures~. .
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Summary Presentation suggesting levies on new builds in the Tamar Estuary SPA & Plymouth Sound & Estuaries SAC region to alleviate long-term human environmental impacts.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceLangston, W.J., Chesman, B.S., Burt, G.R., Hawkins, S.J., Readman, J. & Worsfold, P. 2003. Characterisation of the South West European Marine Sites. Summary Report. . 112 pp.
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Summary This characterisation series sets out to determine the current status of designated marine sites in South West England, and how vulnerable (or robust) they are to contaminants and other anthropogenic pressures. Using published information and unpublished data-sets from regulatory agencies, conservation bodies and research institutes, evidence is compiled on the links between potentially harmful 'activities', environmental quality, and resultant biological consequences. This includes an evaluation of long-term change.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferencePirie, C. 2008. Understanding the risks to European Marine Sites. .
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Summary Natural England presentation outlining plan to assess human-mitigated risks to European Marine Sites. It outlines how risk is currently determined and what improvements are being made in the assessment process, including better involvement of Relevant Authorities and re-examination of the sources of risks.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnenmark, J. 2008. The Wadden Sea: Protection and Management in a Trans-boundary Context. .
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Summary Presentation discussing the multinational management of the Wadden Sea region, which includes SPAs, SACs and Ramsar sites. The trilateral management plan seeks to reduce eutrophication and pollution, manage mussel fisheries, recover seagrass beds and increase numbers of breeding or migrating bird species and marine mammals.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceRamsay, J. 2008. Access to the English Coast. .
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Summary Outlines Natural England's efforts and plans to improve coastal access through development of coastal walkways and by allocating expansions of land for tourism activities. Also discuss consideration of safety, convenience, availability of land for expansion and accounting for coastal change in trail development.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceStoker, B. & Aish, A. 2008. Completing the MPA network. .
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Summary Describes UK plans and progress among European and global efforts unite MPAs into a cohesive, ecologically-relevant network.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceGilliland, P. 2008. Marine Strategy Framework Directive and Marine Protected Areas. .
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Summary Gives outline and criteria of EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and how it relates to MPA management in the UK.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCrutchfield, Z. 2008. Emerging Issues and Drivers Working with the aggregate and oil and gas industries. .
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Summary JNCC presentation on how they are communicating with aggregate and oil & gas industries. Summarizes recent market progress of industries and their issues of concern regarding marine conservation and MPA development.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAshworth, J. 2008. New global tools and resources. .
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Summary An introduction to the Protect Planet Ocean website, which contains MPA-relevant material and integrates with Google Earth to provide regional information.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceFawcett, A. 2008. Meeting the renewable energy and MPA targets -challenges & opportunities. .
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Summary Presentation of how targets for renewable energy development, such as offshore wind farm construction, may integrate with MPAs.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJackson, E. & Langmead, O. 2008. Role of the UK MPA Centre and work to date. .
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Summary A description of the UK MPA Centre as an information resource on MPAs. Features include news on MPA development and legislation, case studies detailing research conducted in MPAs, a discussion forum, an interactive map of UK MPAs and a list of references, many of which may be downloaded.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEno, C. 2008. Fisheries sensitivity mapping - to support management of SACs. .
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Summary Describes a framework to incorporate data from fishing activity, habitat maps and knowledge of marine species and ecosystem interactions into a model of fishery sensitivity, which can be used to assess habitat vulnerability.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJones, P.S.J. 1999. Marine Nature Reserves in Britain. Marine Policy, 23 4-5, 375-396.
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Summary Experiences from voluntary and statutory marine nature reserves in Britain were analysed. The lessons learned indicated that when stakeholders were taken into account nature conservation objectives and promotion of cooperation could be both achieved. However, the use of only a top-down approach can exacerbate conflicts and undermine the potential for cooperation. The outcome of this study can be used in the process of designation and implementation of 39 future marine special areas of conservation in Britain.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceHughes, D.J. 1998. Subtidal brittlestar beds - An overview of dynamic and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association for Marine Science (UK Marine SACs Project). 78
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Summary A review of the 'Subtidal Brittlestar Beds' biotope, which occurs on reefs or submerged sandbanks. The paper examines the status and distribution, environmental and physical attributes, functional biology and ecology, sensitivity and monitoring options for the biotope and identifies areas requiring further research. The application to marine SAC management is also discussed.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2001. Pen Llyn a'r Sarnau European marine site - Case History. . 10
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Summary This case history describes the creation of the Management Scheme for the Pen Ll±n a'r Sarnau European marine site, and has been produced in order to share the experience gained from the production of the scheme.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceRichardson, E.A., Kaiser, M.J., Edwards-Jones, G. & Possinham, H.P. 2006. Sensitivity of marine reserve design to the spatial resolution of socioeconomic data. Conservation Biology, 20 4, 1191-1202.
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Summary This paper remarks on the importance of fine resolution of socioeconomic data in the design process of cost-effective networks of marine protected areas. It uses MARXAN as main tool of study, MARXAN is a systematic reserve-selection tool that allows simultaneous optimization for ecological objectives while minimizing costs.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2001. Plymouth Sound and Estuaries European marine site: Case History. . 10
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Summary This case history describes the creation of the Management Scheme for the Plymouth Sound and Estuaries European marine site, and has been produced in order to share the experience gained from the production of the scheme.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2002. Solway Firth European Marine Site - Case History. . 11
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Summary This case history describes the creation of the Management Scheme for the Solway Firth European marine site, and has been produced in order to share the experience gained from the production of the scheme.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHiscock, K. & Breckels, M. 2007. Marine biodiversity hotspots in the UK. A report identifying and protecting areas for marine biodiversity. WWF-UK.
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Summary This report examines how best to identify marine biodiversity 'hotspots' in UK waters, and highlight potential threats to those hotspots.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2002. Sound of Arisaig European marine site: Case History. . 11
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Summary This case history describes the creation of the Management Scheme for the Sound of Arisaig European marine site, and has been produced in order to share the experience gained from the production of the scheme.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceVincent, M.A., Atkins, S.M., Lumb, C.M., Golding, N., Lieberknecht, L.M. & Webster, M. 2004. Marine nature conservation and sustainable development - the Irish Sea Pilot. . 172 pp.
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Summary This report reflects the purpose of the Irish Sea Pilot which was to help develop a strategy for marine nature conservation that could be applied to all UK waters and, with international collaboration, the adjacent waters of the north-east Atlantic. The proposed framework anticipated that a range of measures would be needed to conserve marine biodiversity, including protected areas, spatial planning and other measures.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2001. Strangford Lough Management Scheme Case History. . 8 pp.
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Summary This case history describes the creation of the Management Scheme for the Strangford Lough European marine site, and has been produced in order to share the experience gained from the production of the scheme.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceSilva, J.P., Jones, W., Eldridge, J. & Sarvan, E. 2006. LIFE and the marine environment: Promoting sustainable management of Europe's seas. European Commission. 53 pp.
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Summary This publication explores the contribution the LIFE programme has made to the conservation of Europe's highly endangered marine species and habitats.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2002. Wash and North Norfolk Coast European marine site: Case History. . 12 pp.
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Summary This case history describes the creation of the Management Scheme for the Wash and North Norfolk Coast European marine site, and has been produced in order to share the experience gained from the production of the scheme.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceGubbay, S. 2004. Marine protected areas in the context of marine spatial planning: discussing the links. WWF-UK. 22 pp.
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Summary A discussion document to demonstrate how marine protected areas and marine spatial planning could interact.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature, SNH, CCW, EHS (DoE(NI)), JNCC & SAMS. 2001. European Marine Sites: ecological sensitivity and management requirements. English Nature, Peterborough. 26 pp.
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Summary A brief outline of key species and features of UK marine protected areas and their sensitivities and conservation requirements.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceStevens, T.F., Jones, P.J.S., Howell, K. & Mee, L. 2006. Methods for managing marine protected areas: options for establishing and managing a marine protected area system in the UK. . 49 pp.
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Summary This report presents a review of the available literature concerning management arrangements for Marine Protected Areas in the UK, Europe and around the world with the object of providing guidance for future management of MPAs in the UK.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEN, SNH, CCW, EHS (DoE(NI)), JNCC & SAMS. 2000. UK Marine SACs Project: Partnerships in Action Edinburgh, 15th-16th November, 2000 Conference proceedings. English Nature, Peterborough. 86 pp.
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Summary Proceedings of the UK Marine SACs Project: Partnerships in action held in November 2000 in Edinburgh.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBased on an internal report to WWF by Gubbay, S. 2005. An overview of marine protected areas in the UK. WWF-UK. 14 pp.
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Summary This paper provides an overview of MPA related issues on MPAs in the UK, including legal and policy context and current situation regarding establishment and management of MPAs in the UK.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceMillar, R. 2001. Hidden Beneath the Tides UK Marine Special Areas of Conservation. English Nature, Peterborough. 23 pp.
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Summary This booklet outlines the the need for Special Areas of Conservation in the UK. It gives brief descriptions of habitats and species found within the UK.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2005. MPA designations: A summary of definitions and objectives. WWF-UK.
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Summary There is a bewildering array of spatial designation types and terminology used in the context of Marine Protected Areas. This paper aims to illustrate the more commonly used terms, and to clarify WWF's perspective in relation to terminology and objectives.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceArdron, J.A. 2008. The challenge of assessing whether the OSPAR network of marine protected areas is ecologically coherent. Hydrobiologia, 606 , 45-53
Summary This paper tackles the difficult issue of how the countries signed up to establishing an network of marine protected areas by 2010 under OSPAR can achieve an 'ecologically coherent' network with limited available information.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGubbay, S. 2005. Evaluating the management effectiveness of marine protected areas: using UK sites and the UK MPA programme to illustrate different approaches. WWF-UK. 40 pp.
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Summary This report examines the key issues in relation to the management effectiveness of MPAs in the UK by considering the potential criteria for evaluating effectiveness.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBlount, B.G., Pitchon, A. 2007. An Anthropological Research Protocol for Marine Protected Areas: Creating a Niche in a Multidisciplinary Cultural Hierarchy. Human Organisation, 66 , 103-111
Summary Anthropologists who venture into planned multidisciplinary research in marine systems become enmeshed in a social and cultural system of disciplinary hierarchy that constrains the nature and type of expected research. The hierarchical system that favors biology, ecology, and economics before other social sciences is deeply ingrained in U.S. cultural models and enacted managerially in multidisciplinary research agendas. Within that framework, anthropology is one of the social sciences that modifies economics in the form of socioeconomics. Anthropology as socioeconomics is challenged to carve out research questions within the hierarchical framework. A meta-analysis of the design, implementation, and evaluation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) shows that questions of social and economic equity are in the forefront of fishers' concerns about MPAs, providing a topic of immediate and practical concern for socioeconomic and anthropological research
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGubbay, S. 2005. Marine protected areas & zoning in a system of marine spatial planning. WWF-UK. 14 pp.
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Summary This paper takes a more detailed look at the use of zoning in the context of marine protected areas and marine spatial planning.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceDavies, A.J., Roberts, J.M., Hall-Spencer, J. 2007. Preserving deep-sea natural heritage: Emerging issues in offshore conservation and management. Biological Conservation, 138 , 299-312
Summary This review examines current and emerging issues in deep-sea conservation and discusses conservation status and the designation of marine protected areas. The enforcement of protected areas using satellite tracking of vessels is also discussed and applied to the Darwin Mounds in the north east Atlantic Ocean.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2003. Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSAs) and Marine Environmentally High Risk Areas (MEHRAs). WWF-UK. 10 pp.
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Summary Overview of two shipping designations designed to raise awareness of the sensitivity of marine areas and introduce management measure to reduce risks associated with shipping activities.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceDe Santo, E.M., Jones, P.J.S. 2007. Offshore marine conservation policies in the North East Atlantic: Emerging tensions and opportunities. Marine Policy, 31 , 336-347
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Summary This study describes the conflict that exists between the conservation efforts of EU Member States and fisheries management conducted by the European Community. In particular, precautionary principles are seen as a key factor in creating tension between fisheries management and marine nature conservation efforts.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGubbay, S., Baker, C.M. & Bett, B.J. 2002. The Darwin Mounts and the Dogger Bank. WWF. 16 pp.
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Summary Case studies of the management of two potential Special Areas of Conservation in the offshore environment
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceDouvere, F., Maes, F., Vanhulle, A., Schrijvers, J. 2007. The role of marine spatial planning in sea use management: The Belgian case. Marine Policy, 31 , 182-191
Summary This article looks at the Belgian implementation of Marine Spatial Planning as a tool for sea use management. It looks at the historical developments, plan implementation and the successes in taking a spatial approach despite the lack of a legal zoning framework
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGubbay, S., Baker, C.M., Bett, B.J. & Konnecker, G. 2002. The Offshore Directory. Review of a selection of habitats, communities and species of the North-east Atlantic. WWF.
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Summary Debate on offshore habitat and species conservation and the importance of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs).
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEdgar, G.J., Langhammer, P.F., Allen, G., Brooks, T.M., Brodie, J., Crosse, W., De Silva, N., Fishpool, L.D.C., Foster, M.N., Knox, D.H. 2008. Key biodiversity areas as globally significant target sites for the conservation of marine biological diversity. Aquatic Conservation, 18 , 969-983
Summary This paper discusses the application of the 'representation' criteria of designing a network of MPAs and the way in which subsequent efforst to minimises impacts on resource users bias sitings of MPAs and thus undermine the networks biodiversity conservation value or ecological coherence. The article identifies ways of minimising this bias by using data-driven and species-based concept of key biodiversity areas (KBAs).
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGubbay, S. 2001. No take zones: the next step for nature conservation an fisheries management in the North-east Atlantic. WWF.
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Summary Although Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are less well-known and may be more difficult to implement, they can bring the same benefits as their terrestrial counterparts. This report addresses the importance of No-Take Zones in this context.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceFraser, H.M., Greenstreet, S.P.R., Piet, G.J. 2009. Selecting MPAs to conserve groundfish biodiversity: the consequences of failing to account for catchability in survey trawls. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66 , 82-89
Summary With fishing affecting North Sea groundfish species diversity this paper looks at using groundfish survey data to identify suitable locations for MPAs. It addresses issues of sampling, gear type bias and catchability and compares MPA locations based on adjusted and unadjusted methods.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceRogers, S.I. 1997. A review of closed areas in the United Kingdom Exclusive Economic Zone. CEFAS, Lowestoft. 20 pp.
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Summary This report lists all the closed areas in the UK Exclusive Ecomonic Zone which prohibit access to fishing vessels for 12 months a year, and which may also regulate access to particular gears.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature Greg Smith, Environmental Impacts Team, English Nature 1997. Habitats Regulations Guidance Note 1: The Appropriate Assessment (Regulation 48). Habitats Regulations Guidance, 1 , 1-6
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Summary This Guidance Note has been prepared to assist competent authorities and English Nature staff when undertaking the 'appropriate assessment' required by Regulation 48 of the Habitats Regulations 1994 implementing Article 6(3) of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC).
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature Greg Smith, Environmental Impacts Team, English Nature 1997. Habitats Regulations Guidance Note 2: Review of existing planning permissions and other consents. Habitats Regulations Guidance, 2 , 1-6
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Summary This Guidance Note has been prepared to assist competent authorities (decision making bodies) and English Nature staff when undertaking the review of planning permissions and other consents required by Regulations 50-51, 55-59, 69, 71, 75, 79, 83, 84 and 85 of the Habitats Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature Greg Smith, Environmental Impacts Team, English Nature 1997. Habitats Regulations Guidance Note 3: The Determination of Likely Significant Effect under The Conservation (Natural Habitats &c) Regulations 1994. Habitats Regulations Guidance, 3 , 1-5
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Summary This note provides guidance to staff on how to decide whether or not a plan or project "is likely to have a significant effect". It applies also to the other parts of the Conservation Regulations where the same test is used (e.g. Regulations 20, 24 & 60).
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHuggins, A.E. 2002. Designing marine protected area networks in the Dover Strait. , University of Kent,
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Summary A study on conservation planning methods and the protection of early fish life history stages in the Dover Sea with marine reserves, with a broader relevance to MPA connectivity. Its methods include algorithms useful in creating clustered MPAs that are well connected.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature Wyn Jones, Strategic Development and Reporting Team, English Nature 2001. Habitats Regulations Guidance Note 4: Alone or in combination. Habitats Regulations Guidance, 4 , 1-2
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Summary The Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994 (the Regulations) require competent authorities to make an appropriate assessment of any plan or project which is likely to have a significant effect on a European site, either alone or in combination with other plans or projects and is not directly connected with or necessary to the management of the site (for nature conservation). This test is derived from the obligations of Article 6(3) of the EC Habitats Directive (the Directive). The European Commission produced guidance on the provisions of Article 6 in April 2000, which together with experience gained from casework, has been used to inform the interpretations contained in this guidance note.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature Wyn Jones, Strategic Development and Reporting Team, English Nature 2001. Habitats Regulations Guidance Note 6: The condition imposed on Permitted Development by The Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994 (Regulations 60-63). Habitats Regulations Guidance, 6 , 1-8
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Summary This Guidance Note has been prepared to assist competent authorities (decision making bodies), developers, landowners, statutory undertakers, English Nature staff and others involved in permitted development. It is intended to help to explain the restrictions that may apply as a result of Regulations 60 to 63 of the Conservation (Natural Habitats,&c.) Regulations 1994, as amended (The Habitats Regulations).
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceChild, T.F, & Tittley, I. 2008. Current marine and coastal issues for North East Kent: proceedings of the third North East Kent Coastal Research Conference 9 November 2006. Natural England, Sheffield. 1-131
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Summary This volume contains the proceedings of the third North East Kent Coastal Conference held in the Winter Gardens, Margate on 9 November 2006. A particular aim of the series of conferences has been to facilitate communication and exchange of information between coastal researchers from academia, statutory agencies, local authorities, consultancies and NGOs active in North East Kent European Marine Sites area.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceSpeedie, C.D. & Johnson, L.A. 2008. The Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus) in West Cornwall. Key sites, anthropogenic threats and their implications for conservation of the species. Natural England, Sheffield. 1-45
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Summary The Wildlife Trusts' Basking Shark Project conducted six years of effort corrected line transect surveys in the waters of South Devon and Cornwall between 1999 and 2004 to establish key sites for the basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). This report examines the factors influencing shark selection of key sites, the long-term conservation implications of that site selection, and recommend practical initiatives to safeguard the sharks within those key sites, where necessary.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHughes, D.J. 1998. Subtidal brittlestar beds. An overview of dynamics and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association for Marine Science (UK Marine SACs Project). 78 pp.
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Summary This review intends to summarize the available information relevant to conservation management of biotopes characterized by dense aggregations of epifaunal brittlestars, including its ecological characteristics, its conservation importance, its sensitivity to natural and human-induced environmental changes, and the monitoring options suitable for use in marine SACs. The results of this review are aimed primarily at staff in the statutory nature conservation bodies who are engaged in providing conservation objectives and monitoring advice to the marine SAC management schemes.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceGalloway, T.,Langston, W., Hagger, J. & Jones, M. 2008. The application of biological effects tools to inform the condition of European Marine Sites. Natural England, Sheffield. 1-178
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Summary A number of marine sites have been designated as Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) in England under the EC Habitats Directive. Natural England has a duty to monitor, report on the condition, and advise on risks to the features for which each site has been designated. Currently, methodologies for recording condition are based on ecological community-level census techniques, coupled with contextual information (which includes chemical and biological monitoring assessments), and expert judgement. The aim of this project was to assess the feasibility and value of developing a cost-effective and practical methodology based around biological-effects measurements (biomarkers) to assist in condition assessment of marine SACs, which could be deployed on a 6-year cycle.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBirkett, D.A., Maggs, C.A., Dring, M.J. 1998. Maerl. An overview of dynamics and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association for Marine Science (UK Marine SACs Project). 116 pp.
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Summary This review intends to summarize the available information relevant to conservation management of maerl biotopes, including its ecological characteristics, its conservation importance, its sensitivity to natural and human-induced environmental changes, and the monitoring options suitable for use in marine SACs. The results of this review are aimed primarily at staff in the statutory nature conservation bodies who are engaged in providing conservation objectives and monitoring advice to the marine SAC management schemes.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceIUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (IUCN-WCPA). 2008. Establishing Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks: Making It Happen. IUCN, Washington DC. 1-129
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Summary This guide provides essential information to better understand the role of marine protected area networks to achieve marine conservation. It utilizes current scientific knowledge, institutional experience and global case studies to present the most relevant lessons in building resilient and functional networks.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceDavison, D.M., Hughes, D.J. 1998. Zostera biotopes. An overview of dynamics and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association for Marine Science (UK Marine SACs Project). 95 pp.
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Summary This review intends to summarize the available information relevant to conservation management of biotopes characterized by eelgrasses (Zostera spp.) Zostera beds, including its ecological characteristics, its conservation importance, its sensitivity to natural and human-induced environmental changes, and the monitoring options suitable for use in marine SACs. The results of this review are aimed primarily at staff in the statutory nature conservation bodies who are engaged in providing conservation objectives and monitoring advice to the marine SAC management schemes.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceUNEP-WCMC. 2008. National and Regional Networks of Marine Protected Areas: A Review of Progress. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge. 1-156
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Summary This report reviews the progress being made to develop ecologically representative MPA networks. The report uses information from the literature, MPA practitioners and planners, and conservation experts.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHill, S., Burrows, M.T. & Hawkins, S.J. 1998. Intertidal reefs biotopes. An overview of dynamics and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association for Marine Science (UK Marine SACs Project). 84 pp.
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Summary This review intends to summarize the available information relevant to conservation management of intertidal reef biotopes, including its ecological characteristics, its conservation importance, its sensitivity to natural and human-induced environmental changes, and the monitoring options suitable for use in marine SACs. The results of this review are aimed primarily at staff in the statutory nature conservation bodies who are engaged in providing conservation objectives and monitoring advice to the marine SAC management schemes.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHolt, T.J., Rees, E.I., Hawkins, S.J. & Seed, R. 1998. Biogenic reefs. An overview of dynamics and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association for Marine Science (UK Marine SACs Project). 170 pp.
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Summary This review intends to summarize the available information relevant to conservation management of biogenic reef, including its ecological characteristics, its conservation importance, its sensitivity to natural and human-induced environmental changes, and the monitoring options suitable for use in marine SACs. The results of this review are aimed primarily at staff in the statutory nature conservation bodies who are engaged in providing conservation objectives and monitoring advice to the marine SAC management schemes.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHartnoll, R.G. 1998. Circalittoral faunal turf biotopes. An overview of dynamics and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association for Marine Science (UK Marine SACs Project). 109 pp.
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Summary This review intends to summarize the available information relevant to conservation management of Circalittoral Faunal Turfs biotopes, including its ecological characteristics, its conservation importance, its sensitivity to natural and human-induced environmental changes, and the monitoring options suitable for use in marine SACs. The results of this review are aimed primarily at staff in the statutory nature conservation bodies who are engaged in providing conservation objectives and monitoring advice to the marine SAC management schemes.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBirkett, D.A., Maggs, C.A., Dring, M.J., Boaden, P.J.S. & Seed, R. 1998. Infralittoral reefs biotopes with kelp species. An overview of dynamics and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association for Marine Science (UK Marine SACs Project). 174 pp.
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Summary This review intends to summarize the available information relevant to conservation management of Infralittoral Reef Biotopes with Kelp Species, including its ecological characteristics, its conservation importance, its sensitivity to natural and human-induced environmental changes, and the monitoring options suitable for use in marine SACs. The results of this review are aimed primarily at staff in the statutory nature conservation bodies who are engaged in providing conservation objectives and monitoring advice to the marine SAC management schemes.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceElliott, M., Nedwell, S., Jones, N.V., Read, S.J., Cutts, N.D., & Hemingway, K.L. 1998. Intertidal sand and mudflats and subtidal mobile sandbanks. An overview of dynamics and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association for Marine Science (UK Marine SACs Project). 151 pp.
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Summary This review intends to summarize the available information relevant to conservation management of Intertidal Sand and Mudflats & Subtidal Mobile Sandbanks biotopes, including its ecological characteristics, its conservation importance, its sensitivity to natural and human-induced environmental changes, and the monitoring options suitable for use in marine SACs. The results of this review are aimed primarily at staff in the statutory nature conservation bodies who are engaged in providing conservation objectives and monitoring advice to the marine SAC management schemes.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHughes, D.J. 1998. Sea pens & burrowing megafauna. An overview of dynamics and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association for Marine Science (UK Marine SACs Project). 105 pp.
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Summary This review intends to summarize the available information relevant to conservation management of Sea Pens and Burrowing Megafauna, including its ecological characteristics, its conservation importance, its sensitivity to natural and human-induced environmental changes, and the monitoring options suitable for use in marine SACs. The results of this review are aimed primarily at staff in the statutory nature conservation bodies who are engaged in providing conservation objectives and monitoring advice to the marine SAC management schemes.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJones, L.A., Hiscock, K. & Connor, D.W. 2000. Marine habitat reviews. A summary of ecological requirements and sensitivity characteristics for the conservation and management of marine SACs. Peterborough, Joint Nature Conservation Committee.
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Summary This report is a compilation of 22 habitat reviews, covering many of the significant marine habitats found around the UK's coastline and in particular within the network of marine Special Areas of Conservation1 (SACs). The purpose of these reviews is to provide a technical summary of the key characteristics of each habitat, to assist in their management and conservation. The results of this report are aimed primarily at staff in the statutory nature conservation bodies who are engaged in providing conservation objectives and monitoring advice to the marine SAC management schemes.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceABP Research. 1999. Good practice guidelines for ports and harbours operating within or near UK European marine sites. English Nature. 120 pp.
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Summary These guidelines provide guidance on the operations taking place within ports and harbours that operate within or near SACs proposed for designation for their marine habitats and species. This report summarizes the understanding of the potential impacts of port and harbour operations, identifying operations where the potential for adverse effect exists and suggesting means to avoid, minimise or address these impacts.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceFowler, S.L. 1999. Guidelines for managing the collection of bait and other shoreline animals within UK European marine sites. . 132 pp.
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Summary This report describes the collection of bait and non-bait animals from the shore and provides practical advice to managers of coastal sites on this activity and the range of options available for managing them.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceGubbay, S. & Knapman, P.A. 1999. A review of the effects of fishing within UK European Marine Sites. English Nature (UK Marine SACs Project). 134 pp.
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Summary This report reviews the effects that different types of fishing have on European Marine Sites (Special Areas of Conservation and on Special Protection Areas). The report aims to inform relevant authorities in the development and implementation of management schemes on European marine sites so the potential effects of fishing can be taken into account.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCole, S., Codling, I.D., Parr, W. & Zabel, T. 1999. Guidelines for managing water quality impacts within UK European Marine Sites. English Nature (UK Marine SACs Project). 449 pp.
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Summary This report is one of seven studies bringing together guidance on human activities and their impacts, and promoting the means of avoiding significant damage to features, the others being: port and harbour operations, collecting bait and other shoreline animals, water quality in lagoons, aggregate extraction, recreational user interactions and fisheries. The objectives of the series of guideline documents are: to identify the activity and circumstances where the impact on conservation features is minimal or beneficial; to identify the operations and circumstances where potential for adverse effect does exist; to identify existing guidance and procedures which can be used to exercise appropriate controls for avoiding, minimising or addressing these impacts.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceUK CEED. 2000. A review of the effects of recreational interactions within UK European marine sites. Countryside Council for Wales (UK Marine SACs Project). 264 pp.
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Summary This report is one of seven studies bringing together guidance on human activities and their impacts, and promoting the means of avoiding significant damage to features, the others being: port and harbour operations, collecting bait and other shoreline animals, water quality in lagoons, water quality in coastal areas, aggregate extraction and fisheries. The objectives of the series of guideline documents are: to identify the activity and circumstances where the impact on conservation features is minimal or beneficial; to identify the operations and circumstances where potential for adverse effect does exist; to identify existing guidance and procedures which can be used to exercise appropriate controls for avoiding, minimising or addressing these impacts.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferencePosford Duvivier Environment & Hill, M.I. 2001. Guidelines on the impact of aggregate extraction on European Marine Sites. Countryside Council for Wales (UK Marine SACs Project).
File Click here to download this reference
Summary This report is one of seven studies bringing together guidance on human activities and their impacts, and promoting the means of avoiding significant damage to features, the others being: port and harbour operations, collecting bait and other shoreline animals, water quality in lagoons, water quality in coastal areas, recreational interactions and fisheries. The objectives of the series of guideline documents are: to identify the activity and circumstances where the impact on conservation features is minimal or beneficial; to identify the operations and circumstances where potential for adverse effect does exist; to identify existing guidance and procedures which can be used to exercise appropriate controls for avoiding, minimising or addressing these impacts.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJohnston, C.M and Gilliland, P.M. 2000. Investigating and managing water quality in saline lagoons based on a case study of nutrients in the Chesil and the Fleet European marine site. . 141 pp.
File Click here to download this reference
Summary This report is one of seven studies bringing together guidance on human activities and their impacts, and promoting the means of avoiding significant damage to features, the others being: port and harbour operations, collecting bait and other shoreline animals, water quality in coastal areas, aggregate extraction, recreational user interactions and fisheries. The objectives of the series of guideline documents are: to identify the activity and circumstances where the impact on conservation features is minimal or beneficial; to identify the operations and circumstances where potential for adverse effect does exist; to identify existing guidance and procedures which can be used to exercise appropriate controls for avoiding, minimising or addressing these impacts.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEN, SNH, CCW, EHS (DoE(NI)), JNCC & SAMS 2001. Guidelines for developing conservation objectives for Marine SACs - Learning from the UK Marine SACs Project 1996-2001. . 48 pp.
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Summary This report provides guidance to practitioners involved with implementing the Habitats Directive in marine areas. This document is relevant to the management of marine European Marine Sites. Draws on experiences gained in the UK but is intended to be of value in other member states.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEN, SNH, CCW, EHS (DoE(NI)), JNCC & SAMS 2001. Indications of good practice for establishing management schemes on European marine sites. Learning from the UK Marine SACs Project 1996 - 2001. . 55 pp.
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Summary The purpose of this report is to provide all those engaged in establishing appropriate management on marine sites with the learning and good practice that may be taken from the experiences to date in the UK and particularly from the UK Marine SACs Project.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJones, P.J.S., Burgess, J. & Bhattachary, D. 2001. An evaluation of approaches for promoting relevant authority and stakeholder participation in European Marine Sites in the UK. English Nature (UK Marine SACs Project). 98 pp.
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Summary This study evaluates different approaches employed to provide for Relevant Authority (RA) and stakeholder participation in European Marine Sites (EMSs). These findings are based on 15 case studies. The aims of the study were: to evaluate the effectiveness of approaches and techniques which have been employed; to promote RA and stakeholder participation in EMS management scheme processes; to analyse the contexts within which these techniques have been employed and to make recommendations concerning good practice in different contexts.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceGubbay, S. 2006. Marine Protected Areas. A review of their use for delivering marine biodiversity benefits. . 42
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Summary This report examines the evidence for benefits from Marine Protected Areas set up for the conservation of marine biodiversity and across the full spectrum of management regimes from Highly Protected Marine Reserves to multiple-use management areas.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceLaffoley, D.d'A., Vincent, M., Connor, D.W., Hill, M., & Breen, J. 2002. Strategic goals and objectives for marine nature conservation, and associated indicators. Prepared for the Review of Marine Nature Conservation by English Nature and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee. . 23
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary This report examines the evidence for reserve effects in Marine Protected Areas set up for the conservation of marine biodiversity and across the full spectrum of management regimes from Highly Protected Marine Reserves to multiple-use management areas.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBull, K.S.E, & Laffoley, D.d'A. 2003. Networks of Protected Areas in the Maritime Environment. A report for the Review of Marine Nature Conservation and the Marine Stewardship process on a stakeholder workshop held in London on 19 June 2003. . 35
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Proceedings of a stakeholder workshop on networks of protected areas in the maritime environment, hosted by English Nature on 19 June 2003. Key messages from the workshop were: there is a need for Government to confirm the scope, nature and role of maritime protected areas (MPAs) and networks; there is enough information to start building networks now; a focus is required on ecosystem recovery; besides rare and threatened habitats and species marine landscape and ecosystem considerations need to be taken into account; full representation of biodiversity, replication of sites, and creating areas of permanent closure are fundamental elements to networks; existing MPAs are important as the building blocks of an evolving network; networks need to be designed; and mechanisms need to be created to achieve local community ownership and buy-in.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJones, L. 2005. Identification of marine habitats relevant to Special Areas of Conservation. English Nature Research Reports. 76
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Summary This report provides information on the distribution of relevant marine habitats to SACs and offers a summary description of relevant biological information.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2006. England's European Marine Sites. Natural England.
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Summary Leaflet with a list and location of the 39 European Marine Sites located around England.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceFrid, C., Paramor, O. 2006. Marine biodiversity: The rationale for intervention. Building the evidence base for the Marine Bill. DEFRA. 63
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary This report highlights the importance of marine biodiversity, the current status and trends in the UK's marine biodiversity; and provides details for any decline, loss or deterioration what the likely consequences for the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. This report provides evidence to support the development of policies to improve the conservation of marine biodiversity.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBeaumont, N., Townsend, M., Mangi, S. & Austen, M.C. 2006. Marine biodiversity: An economic valuation. Building the evidence base for the Marine Bill. DEFRA. 64
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary This report provides a valuation of the goods and services resulting from biodiversity in UK waters with the purpose of informing the need for further protection of marine biodiversity.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBoyes, S., Burdon, D. & Elliot, M. 2006. Unlicensed activities: A review to consider the threats to marine biodiversity. Building the evidence base for the Marine Bill. DEFRA. 87
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Summary This report provides a review of unlicensed activities in UK waters and offers an assessment of whether any are likely to pose a threat to marine biodiversity.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHemingway, K., Cutts, N., Boyes S., Allen, J., Elliot, M. & Travers, S. 2006. Marine species protection: A review of risk and considerations for improvement. Building the evidence base for the Marine Bill. DEFRA. 80
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary This research aimed to provide the evidence base in a concise but scientifically defendable manner on whether there are still marine species which are unprotected and whose conservation is at risk from human activities, and to consider whether legislative species protection would be beneficial, or if adequate protection is possible via alternative approaches (e.g. voluntary, sectoral, area-based etc).
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceRichardson, E.A., Kaiser, M.J., Hiddink, J.G, Galanidi, M. & Donald E.J. 2006. Developing scenarios for a network of marine protected areas. Building the evidence base for the Marine Bill. DEFRA. 69
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary This report provides a range of MPA network scenarios and assesses the likely extent of the MPA network which would be used to inform the preparation of a regulatory impact assessment.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCork, M., Gubbay, S., Payne, S. & Lowther, J. 2006. Enforcement of marine nature conservation legislation: examining the scope for improvements. Building the evidence base for the Marine Bill. DEFRA. 64
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Summary This report provides a review and assessment of the current range of marine nature conservation enforcement structures, roles and powers and establishes how the enforcement of marine nature conservation could be enhanced at the present time, and with direct regard to emerging marine management requirements.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceConnor, D.W., Gilliland, P.M., Golding, N, Robinson, P.,Todd, D., & Verling, E. 2006. UKSeaMap: the mapping of seabed and water column features of UK seas. Joint Nature Conservation Committee. 104
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Summary This report summarises the methods used in identifying and mapping the seabed and water column features of UK seas. The report also summarises the potential uses and limitations of the marine landscapes approach. The aim of this project was to use available geological, physical and hydrographical data, combined where possible with ecological information, to produce simple broadscale and ecologically relevant maps of the dominant seabed and water column features for the whole sea area under UK jurisdiction.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferencePomeroy, R.S., Parks, J.E. & Watson, L.M. 2004. How's your MPA doing? A guidebook to natural and social indicators for evaluating marine protected areas management effectiveness. , IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, 216
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Summary This guidebook offers managers and MPA practitioners a method to evaluate the effectiveness of MPAs. The evaluation is based on indicators that measure the effectiveness of management in attaining objectives.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceMarine Spatial Planning Pilot Consortium. 2006. Marine Spatial Planning Pilot. ABP Mer. 1-105.
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Summary Final report of DEFRA-commissioned study on developing, implementing and managing marine spatial planning in the UK. The consortium consisted of ABPmer, Terence O'Rourke, Risk & Policy Analysts, Geotek, Hartley Anderson, and Coastal Management for Sustainability. The study is aimed at improving the understanding and application of MSP to marine and coastal waters of the UK.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceKelleher, G. 1999. Guidelines for Marine Protected Areas. , IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, 107
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Guidelines for creating and managing MPAs as a component of integrated coastal management and sustainable development.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceVarious. Douvere, E., Ehler, C. 2008. The Role of Marine Spatial Planning in Implementing Ecosystem-based, Sea Use Management. Marine Policy, 32 5, 759-844.
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Summary Special issue of Marine Policy dedicated to marine spatial planning for ecosystem management.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceTask Force on Economic Benefits of Protected Areas of the World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) of IUCN, in collaboration with the Economics Service Unit of IUCN. 1998. Economic Values of Protected Areas: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers. , IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 52
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Overview on how to assess the economic value of marine protected areas. Case studies.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJones, P.J.S. 2009. Equity, justice and power issues raised by no-take marine protected area proposals. Marine Policy, 33 5, 759-765.
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Summary The fishing industry's concerns of political and geographical marginalisation in response to increasing calls for No Take Zone MPAs are examined and more active engagement of industry representatives in dialogue concerning NTZs is suggested.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceHockings, M., Stolton, S., Leverington, F., Dudley, N. and Courrau, J. 2006. Evaluating Effectiveness: A framework for assessing management effectiveness of protected areas. 2nd edition. , IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, 105
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary A number of key guidelines for good practice in evaluation are presented from many practitioners around the world, and important needs and directions for the future are identified.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJones, P.J.S. & Carpenter, A. 2009. Crossing the divide: the challenges of designing an ecologically coherent and representative network of MPAs for the UK. Marine Policy, 33 5, 737-743.
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Summary A study looking at the knowledge base for designing an ecologically coherent network of MPAs. Expert opinions are collated and the larval dispersal potential of 31 rare/scarce benthic invertebrates are investigated, finding that over half have dispersal potentials of less than 1km.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceIUCN. Goriup, P. 1998. Marine Protected Areas. PARKS, 8 2, 64 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Volume of case studies of lessons learned from MPAs around the world. The case studies focus on: the application in practice of IUCN/WCPA protected area categories to MPAs and an evaluation of the contributions which MPAs can make to sustainable fishing and biological diversity.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBelfiore, S., Cicin-Sain, B., & Ehler, C., Editors. 2004. Incorporating Marine Protected Areas into Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management: Principles and Guidelines. , IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, 38 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary This report addresses management issues related to: the impacts of coastal and marine uses on Marine Protected Areas (MPAs); raising awareness and political recognition of the role played by MPAs in the coastal and marine area; the consideration of MPA interests in sectoral policies that have an influence on the coastal and marine area; the representation of MPAs within the institutional arrangements for coastal and marine areas; and the assessment of the effectiveness of management of MPAs in the context of adaptive management.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJNCC. 2004. Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Generic Introduction for Marine Feature Guidance. JNCC.. 9 pp.
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Summary This report provides generic advice on the selection of attributes and the assessment process for marine features. It is part of a series that includes specific guidance for assessing the status of attributes for different interest features (Littoral Rock and Inshore Sublittoral Rock Habitats, Littoral Sediment Habitats, Inshore Sublittoral Sediment Habitats, Estuaries, Inlets and Bays, Sea Caves, Lagoons).
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJNCC. 2004. Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Littoral Rock and Inshore Sublittoral Rock Habitats. JNCC.. 27 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Littoral Rock and Inshore Sublittoral Rock Habitats: specific guidance that identifies a core set of attributes which must be used to define favourable condition on every site, plus a set of additional attributes, from which, some or all can be used to highlight any local distinctiveness.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJNCC. 2004. Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Littoral Sediment Habitats. JNCC.. 33 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Littoral Sediment Habitats: specific guidance that identifies a core set of attributes which must be used to define favourable condition on every site, plus a set of additional attributes, from which, some or all can be used to highlight any local distinctiveness.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJNCC. 2004. Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Inshore Sublittoral Sediment Habitats. JNCC.. 27 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Inshore Sublittoral Sediment Habitats: specific guidance that identifies a core set of attributes which must be used to define favourable condition on every site, plus a set of additional attributes, from which, some or all can be used to highlight any local distinctiveness.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJNCC. 2004. Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Estuaries. JNCC.. 29 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Estuaries: specific guidance that identifies a core set of attributes which must be used to define favourable condition on every site, plus a set of additional attributes, from which, some or all can be used to highlight any local distinctiveness.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJNCC. 2004. Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Inlets and Bays. JNCC.. 23 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Inlets and Bays: specific guidance that identifies a core set of attributes which must be used to define favourable condition on every site, plus a set of additional attributes, from which, some or all can be used to highlight any local distinctiveness.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJNCC. 2004. Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Sea Caves. JNCC.. 14 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Sea Caves: specific guidance that identifies a core set of attributes which must be used to define favourable condition on every site, plus a set of additional attributes, from which, some or all can be used to highlight any local distinctiveness.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJNCC. 2004. Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Lagoons. JNCC.. 37 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Lagoons: specific guidance that identifies a core set of attributes which must be used to define favourable condition on every site, plus a set of additional attributes, from which, some or all can be used to highlight any local distinctiveness.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferencePlanes, S., García-Charton, J.A. & Pérez-Ruzafa, A. 2006. Ecological effects of Atlanto-Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas in the European Union. EMPAFISH Project, Booklet no 1. 158 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary This report provides a brief review of the ecological processes important for conservation and what are the expected ecological effects of Marine Protected Areas. Then goes on to descriptions of the research done to date at each EMPAFISH case study site to document and understand the ecological effects of protection measures. The bibliography of the document gives an updated list of articles/references on all ecological studies at the 20 case study sites included in the EMPAFISH project.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceVandeperre, F., Higgins, R., Santos, R.S. & Pérez-Ruzafa, A. 2006. Fishery Regimes in Atlanto-Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas in the European Union. EMPAFISH Project, Booklet no 2. 97 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary This report is part of the EMPAFISH project (European Marine Protected tools for FISHeries management and conservation) which general objectives are: to investigate the effects of different regimes of marine protected areas (MPAs) in Europe on the protection of sensitive and endangered species, habitats and ecosystems from the effects of fishing; to develop quantitative methods to assess the effects of MPAs; and to provide the EU with policy proposals for the implementation of MPAs as management tools. This report focuses on: the evaluation and provision of fishery related variables as indicators of MPAs fishery effects; the analysis of MPAs management regime on exploited and non-commercial species; the effects of MPAs at different temporal and spatial scales; and on the study of MPA effects on fishing effort distribution.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAlban, F., Appere, G. & Boncoeur, J. 2008. Economic Analysis of Marine Protected Areas. A literature review. EMPAFISH Project, Booklet no 3. 51 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary This report is part of the EMPAFISH project (European Marine Protected tools for FISHeries management and conservation) which general objectives are: to investigate the effects of different regimes of marine protected areas (MPAs) in Europe on the protection of sensitive and endangered species, habitats and ecosystems from the effects of fishing; to develop quantitative methods to assess the effects of MPAs; and to provide the EU with policy proposals for the implementation of MPAs as management tools. This report focuses on the analysis of socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs) and in the selection of the best subset of indicators of MPA performance under different management regimes. It reviews the socioeconomic literature dedicated to various aspects of MPAs.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceRoyal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 2004. Turning the tide: Addressing the impact of fisheries on the marine environment. Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 480 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary This report makes more than 70 recommendations for improving the management of fisheries and the marine environment. Key among these is the need for a new framework for marine management, which the Government is taking forward through development of the Marine Bill.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceDEFRA. 2002. Safeguarding our seas. A Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Development of our Marine Environment. DEFRA. 80 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary This report reflects DEFRA's vision for the marine environment. It is underpinned by the principles of sustainable development, integrated management, the conservation of biological diversity, robust science, the precautionary principle and stakeholder involvement.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceWWF. 1999. The Rockall Bank - A Potential MPA. World Wildlife Federation. 1-2.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Description and rationale for creation of Rockall Bank MPA
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceRoberts, C.M. & J.P. Hawkins. 2000. Fully-protected marine reserves: a guide. WWF and University of York.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary The aim of this information pack is to summarize the scientific case for fully-protected reserves in a way that is easily understood by everyone. The objective is to speed up the process of translating scientific research into action. The pack is particularly aimed towards people who need information to inform and persuade others of the benefits of reserves. This book is also intended as a practical guide.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHalpern, B.S. & Warner, R.R. 2003. Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 270 , 1871-1878
Summary This paper argues how a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceMosquera, I., Cote, I.M., Jennings, S. & Reynolds, J.D. 2000. Conservation benefits of marine reserves for fish populations. Animal Conservation, 3 4, 321-332
Summary This paper synthesizes the results of various studies on the potential benefits of marine reserves on fish populations. The results showed that abundances of fishes inside reserves is 3.7 times higher than outside protected areas.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceRoberts, C.M., Bohnsack, J.A., Gell, F., Hawkins, J.P. & Goodridge, R. 2001. Effects of Marine Reserves on Adjacent Fisheries. Science, 294 5548, 1920-1923
Summary This study shows the benefits that marine reserves can have on adjacent fisheries. The study focuses on two networks of marine reserves located in Florida and in St. Lucia. Catches of artisanal fishers increased between 46 and 90% in St. Lucia reserves within 5 years of creation. This paper shows that marine reserves can play an important role in supporting fisheries.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceWWF. 1986. Marine Reserves: Protecting the future of our oceans. WWF's Endangered Seas Campaign. 12 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Brief introduction to MPAs, their benefits for fisheries, ocean's health and local economies, and the challenges that MPAs are facing.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJones, P.J.S. 2001. Marine protected area strategies: issues, divergences and the search for middle ground. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 11 3, 197-216
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary This paper reviews the different objectives, selection, design and management types of MPAs. It discusses ten key objectives for MPAs; the conflicts generated by MPAs; the lack of scientific information for the effectiveness evaluation and the different approaches to management (top-down vs. bottom-up).
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceJoint Nature Conservation Committee. 2008. Offshore Special Area of Conservation: North Norfolk Sandbanks and Saturn Reef. JNCC. 1-22.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Detailed habitat and species information is provided on North Norfolk Sandbanks and Saturn Reef as JNCC advice to DEFRA on identification of Special Areas of Conservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCabinet Office, Prime Minister's Strategy Unit. 2004. Net benefits. A sustainable and profitable future for UK fishing. . 170
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Summary This report analyses the present situation of the fishing industry in the UK and proposes a package of reform measures in order to lay the foundations for a long-term profitable industry and stock recovery, and prevent potentially high damages from stock collapse and/or loss of UK competitiveness. In order to achieve this goal the fishing industry and fisheries departments need to forge a closer partnership.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJoint Nature Conservation Committee. 2008. Offshore Special Area of Conservation: Wyville Thomson Ridge. JNCC. 1-15.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Detailed habitat and species information is provided on Wyville Thomson Ridge as JNCC advice to DEFRA on identification of Special Areas of Conservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceDefra, SEERAD, DARD & WAG. 2005. Safeguarding sealife. The joint UK response to the Review of Marine Nature Conservation. DEFRA. 48
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Summary The UK Government established the Review of Marine Nature Conservation in 1999 to carry out a fundamental review of the options for improving protection for marine sites and species. The outcome of this Review was the Working Group Report presented to Government in July 2004. The report contained 16 key recommendations and a larger number of other proposals. Safeguarding Sea Life sets out the response of the UK Government and devolved administrations to the Report in the context of our wider policies for the marine environment.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJones, P.J.S. 2007. Arguments for conventional fisheries management and against no-take marine protected areas: only half of the story? Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 17 1, 31-43
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Summary This paper reviews arguments for conventional fisheries management approaches (CFMAs) and against no-take marine protected areas (NTMPAs). It is set against a background of both many calls for NTMPAs and increasing arguments that such calls are 'red herrings' as they distract attention from the real fisheries management issues. It is based on the alternative argument that NTMPAs may not be a fisheries panacea but nor are they a red herring, as they reflect the extension of scientific and ethical concerns for the wider health of marine ecosystems, including their component populations and habitats, the processes that sustain them and the functions they provide.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceDe Santo, E.M. & P.J.S. Jones. 2007. Offshore marine conservation policies in the North East Atlantic: Emerging tensions and opportunities. Marine Policy, 31 , 336-347
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Summary This article examines recent developments in offshore marine conservation in the North-East Atlantic in light of the legislative developments and political frameworks that are currently evolving.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceJoint Nature Conservation Committee. 2009. Offshore Special Area of Conservation: Hatton Bank. JNCC. 1-26.
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Summary Detailed habitat and species information is provided on Hatton Bank as JNCC advice to DEFRA on identification of Special Areas of Conservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJones, P.J.S. 2006. Collective action problems posed by no take zones. Marine Policy, 30 2, 143-156
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Summary This paper examines "collective action problems" posed by the IUCN's goal of having 20-30% of the global marine environment designated as a no-take zone by 2012. It argues that since NTZs aim to alter human behaviour, they must incorporate a social science aspect in their design, implementation and enforcement.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceJoint Nature Conservation Committee. 2008. Offshore Special Area of Conservation: North West Rockall Bank. JNCC. 1-19.
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Summary Detailed habitat and species information is provided on North West Rockall Bank as JNCC advice to DEFRA on identification of Special Areas of Conservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJones, P.J.S. & Burgess, J. 2005. Building partnership capacity for the collaborative management of marine protected areas in the UK: a preliminary analysis. Journal of Environmental Management, 77 3, 227-243
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Summary A report on 15 case studies of inshore UK MPAs and the challenges and merits of partnership between authorities and resource users. It focuses on whether problems resulting from partnership (e.g. imposition and parochialism) can be or have been overcome and anticipates future problems that may arise.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceJoint Nature Conservation Committee. 2008. Offshore Special Area of Conservation: Braemar Pockmarks. JNCC. 1-15.
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Summary Detailed habitat and species information is provided on Braemar Pockmarks as JNCC advice to DEFRA on identification of Special Areas of Conservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJones, P.J.S. Eds Kaiser, M. J. and de Groot, S. J. 1999. Economic and sociocultural priorities for marine conservation. In Effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats: biological, conservation and socio-economic issues , Oxford: Blackwell Science, 354-365
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Summary The marine environment is generally regarded as wilderness and as such receives less attention from society in general. Likewise, the value of marine resources is often underestimated by the public, who have little direct interaction with marine wildlife. Regardless, the resilience of marine ecosystems may be endangered by fishing activities, although prediction is difficult because of complex trophic interactions. Societal interest in preserving marine life tends to focus on key species, such as birds, turtles and marine mammals and thus wider ecological impacts can be neglected. Thus, public awareness should be raised regarding non-target impacts of fishing. This can be achieved through reduction of uncertainty in fishing impacts on habitats and species and through more topical application of scientific efforts.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceJoint Nature Conservation Committee. 2009. Offshore Special Area of Conservation: Bassurelle Sandbank. JNCC. 1-14.
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Summary Detailed habitat and species information is provided on Bassurelle Sandbank as JNCC advice to DEFRA on identification of Special Areas of Conservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJones, P.J.S. 1994. A Review and Analysis of the Objectives of Marine Nature Reserves. Ocean and Coastal Management, 24 3, 149-178
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Summary No consensus is found among a review of 11 papers on the objectives of Marine Nature Reserves, although all are valid and achievable. The objectives of Marine Protected Areas are found to be a reasonable consensus of MNR objectives and that the formation of an MNR is only effective if these objectives are not compromised during formation and implementation of relevant management.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceJoint Nature Conservation Committee. 2008. Offshore Special Area of Conservation: Dogger Bank. JNCC. 1-30.
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Summary Detailed habitat and species information is provided on Dogger Bank as JNCC advice to DEFRA on identification of Special Areas of Conservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJones, P.J.S. 2001. Recommendations concerning approaches for promoting relevant authority and stakeholder participation in Marine SACs in the Azores. Report to the MAR&Eactute; Project. .
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Summary A MARÉ-commissioned report presenting recommendations to stakeholders and potential managers regarding five marine SACs in the Azores.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceVarious. 2007. First International Marine Protected Areas Congress. IMPA Congress. 1-665.
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Summary Proceedings and abstracts of presentations given at the 1st International Marine Protected Areas Congress given in Geelong, Australia on the 23-27th of October, 2005.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferencePitcher, T.J., Kalikosky, D., Short, K., Varkey, D. & Pramod, G. 2009. An evaluation of progress in implementing ecosystem-based management of fisheries in 33 countries. Marine Policy, 33 2, 223-232.
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Summary A paper which finds that, of 33 surveyed countries, none were highly rated for ecosystem-based management of their fisheries and over half received a failing grade. In some instances, developing countries were found to outperform developed nations.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGray, M. 2007. Guidance Note: Commerical Fishing and Wildlife. SeaFish. 6 pp.
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Summary SeaFish guidance to fishermen on protected marine wildlife and legislation surrounding them.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHiddink, J.G., Kaiser, M.J., Hinz, H. & Ridgeway, A. 2008. Quantification of epibenthic fauna in areas subjected to different regimes of scallop dredging activity in Lyme Bay, Devon. Bangor University. 71 pp.
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Summary Baseline data is obtained for four benthic invertebrate species in and outside of four volunteer MPAs closed to dredging. The Pink Sea Fan and Deadman's Fingers were found to be larger and more abundant outside the MPAs than within them.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceSewall, J., Harris, R., Hinz, H., Votier, S. & Hiscock, K. 2007. An assessment of the Impact of Selected Fishing Activities on European Marine Sites and a Review of Mitigation Measures. SeaFish. 219 pp.
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Summary Report commissioned by SeaFish to examine the impact of fisheries on EMS features and integrity. Methods to potentially mitigate effects and areas for future research are also discussed.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBevilacqua, S., Terlizzi, A., Fraschetti, S., Russo, G.F. & Boero, F. 2006. Mitigating human disturbance: can protection influence trajectories of recovery in benthic assemblages? Journal of Animal Ecology, 75 , 908-920
Summary The paper examines the effects of the date mussel (Lithophaga lithophaga) fishery in the SW Mediterranean Sea. The destructive effects of the fishery were reproduced at two unprotected control locations and one fully protected location. The benthos recovered faster at the fully protected location. The authors suggest that MPAs can potentially accelerate the processes of recolonization.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGreen, K. 2009. The Seafish guide to Marine Protected Areas. SeaFish. 4 pp.
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Summary Summary and description of MPA types, their legislative framework in UK and Scottish Marine Bills and progress and key dates in their implementation.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAgardy, T., Bridgewater, P., Crosby, M.P., Day, J., Dayton, P.K., Kenchington, R., Laffoley, D., McConney, P., Murray, P.A., Parks, J.E. & Peau, L. 2003. Dangerous targets? Unresolved issues and ideological clashes around marine protected areas. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 13 , 353-367
Summary The paper focuses on the differences in opinions in the conservation community which have resulted from a rush to implement MPAs without a firm understanding of the underlying conservation science. It is suggested that scientists need to provide clarity and testing of assumptions to ensure the appropriate mix of management tools are implemented. MPAs should be adaptively managed. The paper then goes on to examine why differences of opinion concerning MPAs have arisen by discussing fundamental questions.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceHewer, A., Lart, W., Kingston, A., Findlay, M. & Searle, A. 2000. Sampling and analysis of benthos from discard samples taken from Western Waters. SeaFish. 62 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary Study examining invertebrate bycatch from trawling fisheries and how it can be used to characterise benthic habitats and trawling impacts upon them.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAirame, S., Dugan, J.E., Lafferty, K.D., Leslie, H., McArdle, D.A. & Warner, R.R. 2003. Applying ecological criteria to marine reserve design: a case study from the Californian Channel Islands. Ecological Applications, sp1, 170-184
Summary This paper examines a case study from the Californian Channel Islands. A network of MPAs for conservation and fisheries management was designed using ecological criteria as a theoretical framework. The paper highlights the establishment of clear goals for the MPAs and the fact that associated constraints were taken into account during the proposal process. The process of locating and determining the area used for potential reserve sites is discussed.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceWest, C.D., Dytham, C., Righton, D. & Pitchford, J.W. 2009. Preventing overexploitation of migratory fish stocks: the efficacy of marine protected areas in a stochastic environment. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66 ,
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Summary A simulation study indicating that migratory fish, such as Atlantic cod and tuna, spend too much time away from MPAs in their migrations to be sufficiently protected by them. Transient species spend more time outside MPAs and become vulnerable to commercial fishing effects. However, it also finds that without the sanctuary of an MPA during part of their migration, fisheries were doomed to collapse. The authors of the study recommend dynamic fishing quotas and harvest control rules in addition to MPA creation to prevent "worst-case scenarios".
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBabcock, R.C., Kelly, S., Shears, N.T., Walker, J.W. & Willis, T.J. 1999. Changes in community structure in temperate marine reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 189 , 125-134
Summary Two no-take marine reserves in northeastern New Zealand were studied to assess whether the protection of predator populations had indirect effects on grazers and consequently algal abundance. In a comparison between the reserves and adjacent unprotected areas, the most common demersal predatory fish (Pagrus auratus) and spiny lobsters were more abundant and larger within the reserves. Since the establishment of the reserves, sea urchin densities had declined within the reserves and consequently kelp forests were more extensive.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceMarLIN. 2009. WWF Marine Health Check Update. WWF. 4 pp.
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Summary An update on WWF's Marine Health Check, to be released autumn, 2009. The update outlines how the Marine and Coastal Access Bill, the Scottish Marine Bill and similar Northern Ireland legislation must be used to halt the decline of biodiversity. The continued decline or lack of recovery in flagship species such as the Pink Sea Fan, Harbour Dolphins, Atlantic Salmon and deep-sea coral implies the need for ecologically-relevant Marine Conservation Zones. They also recommend that MCZ boundaries be kept flexible, to allow dynamism in the face of an ever-changing marine environment, and that they should transcend political or administrative boundaries.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBalmford, A., Gravestock, P., Hockley, N., McClean, C.J. & Roberts, C.M. 2004. The worldwide costs of marine protected areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101 , 9694-9697
Summary The paper investigates the cost of a global system of MPAs. The costing is based on a survey of the running costs of 83 MPAs worldwide. The estimated cost of a global MPA network covering 20-30% of the worlds seas is between 5 and 19 billion US dollars. The paper states that this is less than the US government spends on fisheries subsidies and highlights other economic and social gains of such a network.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceExe Estuary Management Partnership 2005. Exe Estuary Management Plan 2006-2011. Devon County Council. 26 pp.
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Summary Management plan for the Exe Estuary SPA spanning the years 2006-2011.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBanks, S.A. & Skilleter, G.A. 2007. The importance of incorporating fine-scale habitat data into the design of an intertidal marine reserve system. Biological Conservation, 138 , 13-29
Summary The paper raises the concern about using broad scale bioregional frameworks for intertidal systems when conservation priorities are at the local level. The authors suggest that using broad-scale measures for biodiversity probably results in fine-scale habitats being poorly represented in marine reserves. However, by utilizing finer-scale physical data the probability that conservation goals will be met is increased.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceAshworth, J., Lindenbaum, K. & Pizzolla, P. 2009. Marine Protected Areas Workshop Report. Natural England, JNCC, CCW, Welsh Assembly Government, Northern Ireland Environment Agency. 33 pp.
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Summary Summary report, including abstracts of presentations, on the Marine Protected Areas Workshop given in Liverpool, 27th-29th of October 2008. For references and pdfs of individual workshop presentations, click here.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBanks, S.S., Skilleter, G.A. & Possingham, H.P. 2005. Intertidal habitat conservation: identifying conservation targets in the absence of detailed biological information. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 15 3, 271-288
Summary There is a demand for marine reserves that conserve biodiversity. The location of reserves must often be decided when detailed information on biota is absent. A system of intertidal marine reserves was proposed along the Queensland coast using surrogate measures of biodiversity. Marine and terrestrial protected areas systems should be considered dependently, so as to ensure the adequate representation of intertidal habitats.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceYorio, P. 2009. Marine protected areas, spatial scales, and governance: implications for the conservation of breeding seabirds. Conservation Letters, 2 , 171-178.
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Summary Examines the use of MPAs in protecting Argentinian seabird populations. Foraging strategies of different species within the MPA are examined and indicate management beyond MPA borders is necessary for proper protection.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBarrett, J.H., Locker, A.M. & Roberts, C.M. 2004. The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 271 , 2417-2421
Summary This paper highlights the zooarchaeological evidence of rapidly increased catches of herring and cod occurring around AD 1000 in Englands sea fisheries. The article suggests that medieval palaoecological proxies are employed in addition to early modern historical records and recent fisheries data when searching for pristine baselines in marine ecosystems.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferencePound, D. 2009. Adopting effective stakeholder engagement processes to deliver regional Marine Protected Area (MPA) network. Natural England. 134 pp.
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Summary A Natural England and JNCC commissioned report on effectively engaging stakeholders for involvment in new Marine Conservation Zone projects. In light of research from surveys, case studies, Finding Sanctuary's engagement activity and an examination of how best to align stakeholder engagement with MCZ, Natura 2000 and MSP activities, recommendations are outlined for thorough planning, communication with stakeholders, contracting professionals for involvement, creating a well designed involvement process, making technically sound decisions and improving clarity in negotiations and outcomes relevant to stakeholders.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBaskett, M.L., Micheli, F. & Levin, S.A. 2007. Designing marine reserves for interacting species: insights from theory. Biological Conservation, 137 2, 163-179
Summary A multispecies approach to designing and monitoring reserve networks is necessary to ensure the protection of biodiversity and ecosystem structure. The paper uses community models to look at the effects of species interactions and variety of species upon reserve design. Multispecies dynamics are crucial in determining reserve size, spacing and expectations after establishment.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBogaerta, D., Cliquet, A. & Maes, F. 2009. Designation of marine protected areas in Belgium: A legal and ecological success? Marine Policy, 33 6, 878-886
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Summary Review of the six-year process leading to designation of new MPAs in Belgium. A deliberative role, as opposed to an authoritative one, in dealing with stakeholders was more successful with the tradeoff that it is less effective at protecting marine biodiversity.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBeck, M.W., Marsh, T.D., Reisewitz, S.E. & Bortman, M.L. 2004. New tools for marine conservation: the leasing and ownership of submerged lands. Conservation Biology, 18 5, 1214-1223
Summary The United States and other countries have a significant amount of submerged land available for lease and ownership, covering a wide selection of ecosystems. The leasing and ownership of submerged lands provides a viable tool for marine conservation. Examples of the utilisation of this tool are given, while pros and cons of its application are considered.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceHolmes, J. & Lock, J. 2010. Generating the evidence for marine fisheries policy and management. Marine Policy, 34 1, 29-35.
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Summary An examination of how research needs and results are communicated and how this communication can be improved. The importance of trust and good relationships between researchers and fisheries managers and trained inhouse scientific advisors and interpreters in ministerial offices are emphasised.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBenedetti-Cecchi, L., Bertocci, I., Micheli, F., Maggi, E., Fosella, T. & Vaselli, S. 2003. Implications of spatial heterogeneity for management of marine protected areas (MPAs): examples from assemblages of rocky coasts in the northwest Mediterranean. Marine Environmental Research, 55 5, 429-458
Summary The study evaluates whether MPAs on rocky coasts in the northwest Mediterranean affect algae and invertebrate assemblages. The authors raise the point of the importance of designing MPAs with spatial heterogeneity in mind.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceFritz, J.S. 2010. Towards a 'new form of governance' in science-policy relations in the European Maritime Policy. Marine Policy, 34 1, 1-6.
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Summary Defines and outlines the principles for acquiring scientific advice for the European Maritime Policy using current conceptual and empirical research on science-policy relations.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBotsford, L.W. 2005. Potential contributions of marine reserves to sustainable fisheries: recent modeling results. Bulletin of Marine Science, 76 2, 245-260
Summary This paper utilises modelling to predict the likely fisheries yields in marine reserves. Benefits of marine reserves in relation to fisheries are discussed.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBotsford, L.W., Micheli, F. & Hastings, A. 2003. Principles for the design of marine reserves. Ecological Applications, 13 sp1, 25-31
Summary The paper collates results from theoretical studies specific to particular situations to construct general principles for marine reserve design for fisheries management. The principles provide general guidelines for marine reserve design.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBradshaw, C., Veale, L.O., Hill, A.S. & Brand, A.R. 2001. The effect of scallop dredging on Irish Sea benthos: experiments using a closed area. Hydrobiologia, 465 , 129-138
Summary An area off the coast of the Isle of Man has been closed since 1989 to commercial fishing with mobile gear. The surrounding area is heavily dredged for scallop, providing an opportunity to study the effects of dredging on the benthos in the two areas. The results provide evidence that scallop dredging alters benthic communities and that closure areas may enable more heterogeneous communities to develop.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceCastilla, J.C. 2000. Roles of experimental marine ecology in coastal management and conservation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 250 , 3-21
Summary A review of rocky shore and subtidal nearshore experimental marine ecology (EME). The connection between EME, conservation and the establishment of MPAs is discussed.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceFriedlander, A.M., Brown, E.K., Monaco, M.E. 2007. Coupling ecology and GIS to evaluate efficacy of marine protected areas in Hawaii. Ecological Applications, 17 , 715-730
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceCharton, J.A.G., Williams, I.D., Ruzafa, A.P., Milazzo, M., Chemello, R., Marcos, C., Kitsos, M.S., Koukouras, A. & Riggio, S. 2000. Evaluating the ecological effects of Mediterranean marine protected areas: habitat, scale and the natural variability of ecosystems. Environmental Conservation, 27 , 159-178
Summary Detection and prediction of the responses of marine communities to the establishment of MPAs is dependent upon the ability to differentiate the influences of natural variability from the influences of management. This paper reviews the scale of responses of populations and communities to protection within Mediterranean MPAs, comparing this to their 'normal' spatio-temporal heterogeneity. The influence of habitat structure on natural variability is also considered.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGladstone, W. 2007. Requirements for marine protected areas to conserve the biodiversity of rocky reef fishes. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Systems, 17 , 71-87
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceChristie, P., McCay, B.J., Miller, M.L., Lowe, C., White, A.T., Stoffle, R., Fluharty, D.L., McManus, L.T., Chuenpagdee, R., Pomeroy, C., Suman, D.O., Blount, B.G., Huppert, D., Eisma, R.L.V., Oracion, E., Lowry, K. & Pollnac, R.B. 2003. Toward developing a complete understanding: a social science research agenda for marine protected areas. Fisheries, 28 12, 22-26
Summary The importance of integrating social science into the design and evaluation of MPAs is highlighted. Five proposed areas of inquiry to advance initial social science research are discussed.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGuenette, S., Alder, J. 2007. Lessons from Marine Protected Areas and Integrated Ocean Management Initiatives in Canada. Coastal Management, 35 , 51-78
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceClaudet, J., Pelletier, D., Jouvenei, J.Y., Bachet, F. & Galzin, R. 2006. Assessing the effects of marine protected area (MPA) on a reef fish assemblage in a northwestern Mediterranean marine reserve: identifying community-based indicators. Biological Conservation, 130 3, 349-369
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Summary Assessment of MPA performance relative to management goals is important. This paper investigates the effect of a no-take marine reserve on reef fish assemblage using ‘before and after ’ data while accounting for spatial variation. The authors suggest that their results may be used to choose the parameters that for the purpose of monitoring programs are most suitable as community-based indicators of MPA impacts.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceHilborn, R. 2007. Defining success in fisheries and conflicts in objectives. Marine Policy, 31 , 153-158
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceClaudet, J., Roussel, S., Pelletier, D. & Rey-Valette, H. 2006. Spatial management of near shore coastal areas: the use of marine protected areas (MPAs) in a fisheries management context. Vie et Milieu - Life and Environment, 56 4, 301-305
Summary The paper raises the issue and importance of spatial considerations in fisheries management. The paper discusses the benefits that MPAs provide in terms of the protection they offer to the ecosystem in space and the beneficial effect this has on adjacent fisheries.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceJentoft, S., van Son, T.C., Bjørkan, M. 2007. Marine Protected Areas: A Governance System Analysis. Human Ecology, 35 , 611-622
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceCooke, S.J. & Cowx, I.G. 2006. Contrasting recreational and commercial fishing: searching for common issues to promote unified conservation of fisheries resources and aquatic environments. Biological Conservation, 128 1, 93-108
Summary With a global focus, this paper examines how the issues and concerns raised by commercial fisheries are also applicable to recreational fisheries in both marine and freshwater environments. The authors believe recreational fisheries should be positioned on the same scale and urgency as commercial fisheries.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceJohn, H.L. 2007. Ecology, politics and policy. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44 , 465-474
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceCowen, R.K., Lwiza, K.M.M., Sponaugle, S., Paris, C.B. & Olson, D.B. 2000. Connectivity of marine populations: open of closed? Science, 287 , 857-859
Summary Models were used to examine the assumption that the majority of marine populations are well connected through the long-distance dispersal of larval phases. Results showed that larval retention near local populations occurs. This has implications for the management of coastal marine resources.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceJohnson, M.P., Crowe, T.P., McAllen, R., Allcock, A.L. 2008. Characterizing the marine Natura 2000 network for the Atlantic region. Aquatic Conservation, 18 , 86 pp.
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceCurley, B.G., Kingsford, M.J. & Gillanders, B.M. 2002. Spatial and habitat-related patterns of temperate reef fish assemblages: implications for the design of Marine Protected Areas. Marine and Freshwater Research, 53 8, 1197-1210
Summary This paper examined patterns of rocky reef fish assemblages in order to provide data regarding the design of MPAs. Findings led to recommendations on the size of MPAs to incorporate representation of all habitat types at all depths.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceKlein, C.J., Chan, A., Kircher, L., Cundiff, A.J., Gardner, N., Hrovat, Y., Scholz, A., Kendall, B.E., Airame, S. 2008. Striking a Balance between Biodiversity Conservation and Socioeconomic Viability in the Design of Marine Protected Areas. Conservation Biology, 22 3, 691 - 700
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceDalton, T.M. 2005. Beyond biogeography: a framework for involving the public in planning of U.S. marine protected areas. Conservation Biology, 19 5, 1392-1401
Summary The author uses empirically and theoretically based research on public participation in U.S. natural resource management to present a framework for the publics involvement in MPA planning.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferencePetrosillo, I., Zurlini, G., Corliann, M.E., Zaccarelli, N., Dadamo, M. 2007. Tourist perception of recreational environment and management in a marine protected area. Landscape and Urban Planning, 79 , 29-37
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceDavis, G.E. 2005. Science and society: marine reserve design for the Californian Channel Islands. Conservation Biology, 19 6, 1745-1751
Summary A case study of a how a community faced with deteriorating resource conditions in the Channel Islands National Park, built a consensus based on science to identify recovery goals and change public policy.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceWalters, C.J., Hilborn, R., Parrish, R. 2007. An equilibrium model for predicting the efficacy of marine protected areas in coastal environments. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 64 , 1009-1018
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceHiddink, J.G., Jennings, S. & Kaiser, M.J. 2006. Indicators of the ecological impact of bottom-trawl disturbance on seabed communities. Ecosystems, 9 7, 1190-1199
Summary The authors developed state and pressure indicators which show the impact of bottom-trawling on benthic communities. This approach can be utilised to communicate the expected medium to long-term ecological benefits of reduced trawling frequency to policy makers and fishing enterprises.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceWeible, C.M. 2007. An Advocacy Coalition Framework Approach to Stakeholder Analysis: Understanding the Political Context of California Marine Protected Area Policy. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theor, 17 , 95-117
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full Referencede Juan, S., Thrush, S.F. & Demestre, M. 2007. Functional changes as indicators of trawling disturbance on a benthic community located in a fishing ground (NW Mediterranean Sea). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 334 , 117-129
Summary This study focussed on the functional components of the benthic community in muddy sediments, including an area that had not been fished for 20 years. In areas dominated by organisms not perceived to be vulnerable to trawling activities, changes in the functional components of the benthic community were seen. The authors highlight the need for all types of benthic communities to be considered in fisheries management solutions.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceWood, L.J., Fish, L., Laughren, J., Pauly, D. 2008. Assessing progress towards global marine protection targets: shortfalls in information and action. Oryx, 42 , 340-351
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceDenny, C.M. & Babcock, R.C. 2004. Do partial marine reserves protect reef fish assemblages? Biological Conservation, 116 1, 119-129
Summary Fish assemblages in an area open to most forms of recreational fishing but closed to commercial fishing were compared with adjacent fished areas. The paper summarises that as a conservation tool partial closures are ineffective.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceDenny, C.M., Willis, T.J. & Babcock, R.C. 2004. Rapid recolonisation of snapper Pagrus auratus: Sparidae within an offshore island marine reserve after implementation of no-take status. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 272 , 183-190
Summary The marine reserve was partially protected before being given the status of a no-take zone. A rapid recovery of snapper was seen after fishing ceased, suggesting that partial fishing regulations are ineffective in protecting targeted species.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGreenstreet, S.P.R., Fraser, H.M., Piet, G.J. 2009. Using MPAs to address regional-scale ecological objectives in the North Sea: modelling the effects of fishing effort displacement. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66 , 90-100
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceDolmer, P. 2002. Mussel dredging: impact on epifauna in Limfjorden, Denmark. Journal of Shellfish Research, 21 2, 529-537
Summary The short and long term effects of mussel dredging on epibenthos are examined. Dredging had significant impacts on the epibenthos in the short term. In the long term experiments, differences in species composition and density were observed at only one of two fished sites. The loss of benthic structural components and its effect on ecosystem processes and functions is discussed.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBeattie, A., Sumaila, U.R. 2002. A model for the bioeconomic evaluation of marine protected area size and placement in the North Sea. Natural Resource Modeling, 15 4, 413-437
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceField, J.C., Punt, A.E., Methot, R.D. & Thomson, C.J. 2006. Does MPA mean ‘major problem for assessments’? Considering the consequences of place-based management systems. Fish and Fisheries, 7 4, 284-302
Summary Most fisheries stock assessments use population-based concepts, conversely MPAs are conceptually place-based. The paper reviews the potential complications that may result from existing and future MPAs, in relation to the science and management systems already established to meet the objectives of conventional fisheries management. The paper uses examples from groundfish fisheries on the west coast of the USA but believes their ideas are generally applicable to management systems worldwide, especially where the institutional infrastructure for managing resources exists.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBell, J.J. 2008. Similarity in connectivity patterns for two gastropod species lacking pelagic larvae. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 357 , 185-194
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceFisher, J.A.D. & Frank, K.T. 2002. Changes in finfish community structure associated with an offshore fishery closed area on the Scotian Shelf. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 240 , 249-265
Summary The paper highlights the effect of an area closed to commercial trawling for groundfish on the finfish community. Several finfish species benefited from the closure, increasing in abundance. In an area open to trawling, the community structure became more similar to that in the closed area. The authors believe this was due to spillover from the closed area. The closure of fisheries has positive benefits at a local and regional scale, although the time scale for benefits to be seen is relatively long compared to tropical systems.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceSanchirico, J.N., Wilen, J.E. 2001. A bioeconomic model of marine reserve creation. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 42 , 257-276
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceFogarty, M.J. & Murawski, S.A. 2005. Do marine protected areas really work? Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution .
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Summary A case study on the effect of year-round fishery closures on Georges Bank.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCarpenter, A. 2007. Implications of larval dispersal distances for rare/scarce marine invertebrates in the UK for the design of an ecologically coherent network of MPAs. , Department of Geography, University College London, 71 pp.
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceHixon, M.A., Francis, R.C., Clarke, M.E., Murawski, S.A. & Ralston, S. 2007. Ten commandments for ecosystem-based fisheries scientists. Fisheries, 32 5, 217-233
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Summary The authors propose tangible action items with the aim of promoting discussion about the implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBoncoeur, J., Alban, F., Guyader, O., Thébaud, O. 2002. Fish, fishers, seals and tourists: economic consequences of creating a marine reserve in a multi-species, multi-activity context. Natural Resource Modeling, 15 4, 387-411
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceFrancour, P., Harmelin, J.G., Pollard, D. & Sartoretto, S. 2001. A review of marine protected areas in the northwestern Mediterranean region: siting, usage, zonation and management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 11 3, 155-188
Summary A general description of the northwestern Mediterranean MPAs, discussing aspects related to location, size, usage, zonation and management.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBell, J.J., Okamura, B. 2005. Low genetic diversity in a marine nature reserve: re-evaluating diversity criteria in reserve design. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 272 , 1067-1074
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceFraschetti, S., Terlizzi, A., Bussotti, S., Guarnieri, G., D'Ambrosio, P. & Boero, F. 2005. Conservation of Mediterranean seascapes: analyses of existing protection schemes. Marine Environmental Research, 59 4, 309-332
Summary The paper investigates the efficacy of Torre Guaceto MPA which is divided into different usage zones. Mapping of benthic assemblage distributions showed that total protection zones do not include the most vulnerable environment types. The authors suggest optimizing their experimental design for future use.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceRoberts, C.M., Sargant, H. 2002. Fishery benefits of fully protected marine reserves: why habitat and behavior are important. Natural Resource Modeling, 15 4, 487-507
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceFujioka, J.T. 2006. A model for evaluating fishing impacts on habitat and comparing fishing closure strategies. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63 10, 2330-2342
Summary The author uses modelling to compute habitat reduction by combining the processes of fishing impact and habitat recovery. The model illustrates that under maintained harvest levels, closing heavily fished areas rather than lightly fished areas can result in increased habitat reduction.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceMacKenzie, B.R., Mosegaard, H., Rosenberg, A.A. 2009. Impending collapse of bluefin tuna in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. Conservation Letters, 2 1, 26-35
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Summary Warns that management plans by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) will legally allow the entire adult bluefin population to be caught in years leading up to 2011. The paper warns that overfishing combined with an inability to cope with poor reproductive years will result in a 90% decline in adult biomass within three generations.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceCharton, J.A.G. & Ruzafa, A.P. 1999. Ecological heterogeneity and the evaluation of the effects of marine reserves. Fisheries Research, 42 1, 1-20
Summary A review of the influence of the physical environment on ecological processes that occur at different levels of organisation. Practical considerations for improving methods of assessing protection in respect of heterogeneity are proposed using case studies. The importance of integrating a multiscaled, hierarchical approach to understanding the way marine reserves work as fisheries management tools is highlighted.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceMonaco, M.E., Friedlander, A.M., Caldow, C., Christensen, J.D., Rogers, C., Beets, J., Miller, J., Boulon, J.M. 2007. Characterising reef fish populations and habitats within and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument: a lesson in marine protected area design. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 14 , 33-40
Link Click here for a link to this reference
Summary
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGarcía-Charton, J., Pérez-Ruzafa, Á., Sánchez-Jerez, P., Bayle-Sempere, J., Reñones, O. & Moreno, D. 2004. Multi-scale spatial heterogeneity, habitat structure, and the effect of marine reserves on Western Mediterranean rocky reef assemblages. Marine Biology, 144 1, 161-182
Summary The study tested hypotheses examining multi-scale spatial variation and the abundance and biomass of reef fish in relation to marine reserves. Within marine reserves, abundance and biomass, species richness and abundance and biomass of several target species reached greater average values.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceEnglish Heritage 2008. Advisory Committee on Historic Wreck Sites Annual Report. Department for Culture, Media and Sport. 39 pp.
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Summary Annual report, which includes case studies on several shipwreck sites, maps of wreck sites and their designations and work undertaken on sites during the 2008 dive season.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceGaylord, B., Gaines, S.D., Siegel, D.A. & Carr, M.H. 2005. Marine reserves exploit population structure and life history in potentially improving fisheries yields. Ecological Applications, 15 6, 2180-2191
Summary Previous work has suggested that marine reserves can produce yields equivalent to those from traditional management although this is based on highly simplified models. The paper highlights that when coupled effects of spatial pattern and dispersal, population size structure and life history are considered, model results indicate that under a large number of circumstances, reserve networks may potentially enhance fishery yields.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceWorm, B., Hilborn, R., Baum, J., Branch, T., Coltie, J., Costello, C., Fogarty, M., Fulton, E., Hutchings, J., Jennings, S., Jensen, O., Lotze, H., Mace, P., McClanahan, T., Minto, C., Palumbi, S., Parma, A., Ricard, D., Rosenberg, Watson , Zeller. 2009. Rebuilding global fisheries. Science, 325 5940, 578-585
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Summary Five of ten well-studied fishery ecosystems have now acheived sustainability. However, 63% of global fish stocks still require rebuilding and reductions in exploitation levels. Catch restrictions, gear modification and area closure are suggested as local management actions, but a global perspective is recommended when considering that poorer regions lack such options and are further impacted by international fleets.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGell, F.R. & Roberts, C.M. 2003. Benefits beyond boundaries: the fishery effects of marine reserves. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18 9, 448-455
Summary A review on the use of marine reserves in fishery management, highlighting case studies from around the world.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceKoslow, J.A. 2009. The role of acoustics in ecosystem-based fishery management. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66 6, 966-973
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Summary Advances in acoustic technology for measuring fishery stocks are discussed, as well as their applicability to ecosystem-based management. In particular, new methods may assist in assessing effects of climate variability and change on stock recruitment. However, many of the problems that were noted 50 years ago still persist and need resolving in order to allow acoustical advances in fishery oceanography.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGerber, L.R., Beger, M., McCarthy, M.A. & Possingham, H.P. 2005. A theory for optimal monitoring of marine reserves. Ecology Letters, 8 8, 829-837
Summary The paper considers the task of monitoring marine reserves to obtain information needed for management decisions. A decision theoretic framework is used to answer the question of how long the recovery of an over-fished stock is monitored in order to determine the fraction of that stock to reserve. The optimal monitoring time frame is usually less than 5 years.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceMora, C., Myers, R.A., Coll, M., Libralato, S., Pitcher, T.J., Sumaila, R.U., Zeller, D., Watson, R., Gaston, K.J., Worm, B. 2009. Management effectiveness of the world's marine fisheries. PLoS Biology, 7 6, 11 pp.
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Summary The effectiveness and extent of methods implemented to improve fisheries management and exploitation are largely unknown. This study finds that not a single assessed coastal state is free from excess fishing effects, regardless of whether scientific assessment and its translation into policy has been implemented.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGerber, L.R., Botsford, L.W., Hastings, A., Possingham, H.P., Gaines, S.D., Palumbi, S.R. & Andelman, S.J. 2003. Population models for marine reserve design: a retrospective and prospective synthesis. Ecological Applications, 13 1, S47-S64
Summary An overview of the use of models in marine reserve design found that concerns have focussed mainly on fishery management. The majority of population models draw the conclusion that reserves increase yields when populations would otherwise be overfished. The need for additional modelling is highlighted.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceAshe, E., Noren, D.P., Williams, R. 2009. Animal behaviour and marine protected areas: incorporating behavioural data into the selection of marine protected areas for an endangered killer whale population. Animal Conservation, , 1-8
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Summary A study co-authored by researchers from Scotland, Canada and the U.S.A. that finds that certain whale species are prone to disturbance from commercial whale-watching activity. The findings suggest that even small MPAs in feeding areas could mitigate this effect. Models of inshore whale activity were used to determine optimal MPA sizes, which were predicted to increase the occurrence of feeding whales by over 2.7 times.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGiacalone, V.M., D'Anna, G., Piptone, C. & Badalamenti, F. 2006. Movements and residence time of spiny lobsters, Palinurus elephas released in a marine protected area: an investigation by ultrasonic telemetry. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 86 , 1101-1106
Summary Restocking initiatives can be used to enhance spiny lobster stocks, aided by the presence of marine reserves. Ultrasonic telemetry was used to monitor 11 lobsters released into a Mediterranean reserve. Results suggest that lobsters preferred a deep habitat and those that reached a rough rocky area with available shelters settled there.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceWessex Archeology. 2008. Marine Aggregates and the Historic Environment: Wrecks Ecology 2007-08. English Heritage. 93 pp.
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Summary An English Heritage-commissioned study of the ecology of select UK shipwrecks. The benthic ecology of wreck sites is of interest from both ecological and archeological perspectives and is presented as such. Protected wrecks act as de-facto MPAs, fostering biodiversity of associated marine life. Marine life and environmental processes on and around wrecks also provide indications of prevailing conditions and allow assessment of threats to protected sites.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceGladstone, W. 2002. The potential value of indicator groups in the selection of marine reserves. Biological Conservation, 104 2, 211-220
Summary The paper investigates the use of surrogates such as indicator groups, to represent biodiversity. This would be applicable in situations where the selection of marine reserve networks is inhibited by limited information on the distribution of biodiversity. Molluscs were found to be a reliable indicator for areas of reservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceJackson, E.L., Langmead, O., Evans, J., Ellis, R., Tyler-Walters, H. 2008. Protecting nationally important marine Biodiversity in Wales. Marine Biological Association of the UK. 76 pp.
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Summary This study explores whether nationally important and OSPAR marine species and habitats within Wales gain protection through the existing network of EMSs. The report first considers whether the current EMSs in Wales include all nationally important and OSPAR species and habitats that occur in Wales and secondly examines whether nationally important and OSPAR species and habitats gain any protection by virtue of being located within an EMS.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceGoñi, R., Quetglas, A. & Reñones, O. 2003. Size at maturity, fecundity and reproductive potential of a protected population of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) from the western Mediterranean. Marine Biology, 143 3, 583-592
Summary Lobster populations that are protected are expected to have greater egg production and therefore contribute to the replenishment of fished populations. The paper compares the egg production and reproductive biology of protected and exploited populations of spiny lobster. Size specific fecundity was found to be greater in the protected population.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature 2000. The Plymouth Sound and Estuaries European Marine Site. English Nature's advice given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994. English Nature. 89 pp.
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Summary Conservation objectives for the Plymouth Sound and Estuaries EMS, provided by Natural England (formerly English Nature).
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceGoñi, R., Quetglas, A. & Reñi,ones, O. 2006. Spillover of spiny lobsters Palinurus elephas from a marine reserve to an adjoining fishery. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 308 , 207-219
Summary The effects of a marine reserve on an adjacent spiny lobster fishery was investigated 9 to 12 years after no-take protection was initiated. Stable catch rates were maintained up to 1500m from the reserve boundary through lobster emigration.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceCountryside Council for Wales. 2008. Core Management Plan Including Conservation Objectives for Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and The Skerries SPA, Cemlyn Bay SAC, Ynys Feurig SSSI, The Skerries SSSI, Cemlyn Bay SSSI. Countryside Council for Wales.. 33 pp.
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Summary Includes conservation objectives (Regulation 33) and management scheme for Cemlyn Bay SAC and Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and The Skerries SPA.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceGrantham, B.A., Eckert, G.L. & Shanks, A.L. 2003. Dispersal potential of marine invertebrates in diverse habitats. Ecological Applications, 13 sp1, 108-116
Summary The dispersal potential of marine macroinvertebrates from different habitats were estimated using life-history parameters. The effectiveness of reserves may differ between habitats therefore reserves must be designed, tailored to habitat type to ensure effective protection of community resources.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceMorecambe Bay Partnership. 2009. Morecambe Bay European marine site Management Scheme Action Plan. Morecambe Bay Partnership.. 10 pp.
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Summary Management plan for the Morecambe Bay EMS, which includes a SAC and a SPA.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceGriffiths, J., Dethier, M.N., Newsom, A., Byers, J.E., Meyer, J.J., Oyarzun, F. & Lenihan, H. 2006. Invertebrate community responses to recreational clam digging. Marine Biology, 149 6, 1489-1497
Summary On beaches in marine reserves where recreational clam digging was prohibited clam abundance, overall species richness and total polychaete family richness where greater than on non-reserve beaches. Intertidal reserves are important in the conservation of local and potentially regional biodiversity.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceKlein, C.J., Steinback, C., Scholz, A.J., Possingham, H.P. 2008. Effectiveness of marine reserve networks in representing biodiversity and minimizing impact to fishermen: a comparison of two approaches used in California. Conservation Letters, 1 , 44-51
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Summary The effectiveness of marine reserve networks was compared using a numerical optimization tool designed by stakeholders, which finds that 2-9.5% more habitat could have been designated without affecting fisheries. A marine reserve proposal created by fishermen was found to be more efficient than ones proposed by other stakeholder groups. This suggests that numerical optimization tools should support, but not replace, stakeholder-driven reserve design processes in California.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGuenette, S. & Pitcher, T.J. 1999. An age-structured model showing the benefits of marine reserves in controlling overexploitation. Fisheries Research, 39 3, 295-303
Summary The authors used an age-structured model based on an Atlantic cod population to compare a reserve with a no-reserve regime where usual fishery management tools were used. Their model indicated that a fish stock protected by a marine reserve would be more resilient to exploitation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceDEFRA. 2010. UK Marine Science Strategy. Defra. 49 pp.
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Summary Government mandate on sustainable use of the seas and managing climate change. The document describes coordination of devolved UK governments in providing a direction for future marine science. Understanding of marine ecosystems, responding to climate change and sustainable ecosystem uses and benefits are outlined as the three highest priorities.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceGuidetti, P. 2002. The importance of experimental design in detecting the effects of protection measures on fish in Mediterranean MPAs. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 12 6, 619-634
Summary The paper highlights the importance of appropriate sampling methods when assessing the effects of MPAs on fish populations. An ideal experimental design is proposed, with a discussion of the associated pragmatic constraints and the implications of not including them in the design.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceCatchpole, T.L., Gray, T.S. 2010. Reducing discards of fish at sea: a review of European pilot projects Journal of Environmental Management, 91 3, 717-723
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Summary A review of 15 pilot projects trialing potential solutions to fish discarding. Fisheries crises, incentivization, funding, expertise, leadership and enforcement are found to be the most important factors in determining the success of a pilot.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGuidetti, P. 2006. Marine reserves reestablish lost predatory interactions and cause community changes in rocky reefs. Ecological Applications, 16 3, 963-976
Summary The paper examines how no-take marine reserves support larger individuals and denser populations of fish species which predate upon sea urchins. The paper summarises the impacts of predation on urchins and makes suggestions on what effects marine reserves will have on urchin populations emphasising the potential community-wide effects.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGrall, J., Hall-Spencer, J.M. 2003. Problems facing maerl conservation in Brittany. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 13 , S55-S64
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Summary Study examining threats to maerl in the Brittany region of France, including extraction, eutrophication, mariculture, fishing and invasive species. Human activities are found to impact all 14 proposed Natura 2000 sites along the Breton coast.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGuidetti, P. 2007. Potential of marine reserves to cause community-wide changes beyond their boundaries. Conservation Biology, 21 2, 540-545
Summary The paper examines whether community-wide changes in temperate rocky reefs exist within and around a marine reserve. The author found that community-wide changes in benthic assemblages occurred beyond the reserve boundaries, which was consistent with the moderate spillover recorded in predatory fish species.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBullimore, B. 2006. Carmarthen Bay & Estuaries European Marine Site Management Scheme: Scope, Purpose & Appearance. . 6 pp.
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Summary A document describing the purpose and scope of Natura 2000 European Marine Site management schemes. Recommendations on what a scheme should contain are given in accordance with the EC Habitats Directive.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceGuidetti, P. & Sala, E. 2007. Community-wide effects of marine reserves in the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 335 , 43-56
Summary The paper investigates the community-wide effects of no-take reserves at the regional scale. Positive effects were seen in reserves for fish targeted by fishing, while the effects on non-target species were variable. The author suggests that caution should be applied when treating reserves and unprotected areas as 2 experimental treatments in ecological studies.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceAppleby, T. 2008. Report into the establishment of marine protected areas in UK waters under existing legislation School of Law, University of Bristol. 33 pp.
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Summary The report aims to give an overview of key marine legal concepts along with existing international and UK legislation underlying the establishment of marine protected areas. The report highlights the most appropriate bodies to develop MPAs and assesses their powers of enforcement.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHalpern, B.S. 2003. The impact of marine reserves: do reserves work and does reserve size matter? Ecological Applications, 13 sp1, 117-137
Summary The author assesses the impacts of marine reserves on biological measures focussing on the effect of reserve size. The assessment is made by reviewing previous empirical work and theoretical literature. The importance of quality data collection is highlighted. The results suggest that reserves benefit almost any marine habitat. The author states that success depends on keeping in mind the goals of a reserve in its design, management and evaluation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceWelsh Assembly Government 2010. Marine conservation zone project, Wales - Newsletter 1 Welsh Assembly Government. 4 pp.
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Summary The first edition of the WAG newsletter regarding MCZ creation in Wales. The report details background information to the creation of MCZs, how MCZs will be implemented in Wales, and what deadlines are set for their implementation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHalpern, B.S., Gaines, S.D. & Warner, R.R. 2004. Confounding effects of the export of production and the displacement of fishing effort from marine reserves. Ecological Applications, 14 4, 1248-1256
Summary Modelling is used to show the net benefits of marine reserves to fisheries. Given the average increases in biomass within reserves, export of production can accumulate up to and beyond 50% of total stock area. The problems of control site selection and monitoring the impact of reserves on recruitment are discussed.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceWelsh Assembly Government 2010. Marine conservation zone project, Wales - Newsletter 1 (Welsh) Welsh Assembly Government. 4 pp.
File Click here to download this reference
Summary The first edition (in welsh) of the WAG newsletter regarding MCZ creation in Wales. The report details background information to the creation of MCZs, how MCZs will be implemented in Wales, and what deadlines are set for their implementation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHalpern, B.S., Regan, H.M., Possingham, H.P. & McCarthy, M.A. 2006. Accounting for uncertainty in marine reserve design. Ecology Letters, 9 1, 2-11
Summary Several modelling frameworks incorporating uncertainty are reviewed. The results are used by the authors to evaluate reserve spacing rules taking into account the uncertain factor of larval dispersal distances. The results show spacing results similar to previous studies. The advantages of factoring uncertainty into modelling and reserve design are discussed with the argument that incorporating uncertainty increases the chances of achieving conservation and management goals.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceCowen, R.K., Sponaugle, S. 2009. Larval Dispersal and Marine Population Connectivity Annual Review of Marine Science, 1 , 443-466
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Summary This paper looks at marine larval dispersal and connectivity using geochemical and genetic analytical techniques. The degree to which populations self-recruit or are connected to other populations has important implications for population regulation, marine area management, and conservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceHalpern, B.S. & Warner, R.R. 2002. Marine reserves have rapid and lasting effects. Ecology Letters, 5 3, 361-366
Summary The authors utilise independent measurements from 80 reserves to indicate that higher average values of biological factors (relative to controls) reach mean levels within a short time period of 1-3 years and that the values are consistent across reserves regardless of age. Marine reserves facilitate quick biological responses which last through time.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceRiddiford, N.J. 2010. Making Waves - FIMETI newsletter 7 The Fair Isle Marine Environment and Tourism Initiative. 22 pp.
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Summary The 7th newsletter from the Fair Isle Marine and Environment Initiative (FIMETI) gives news updates on marine environment issues including the Marine (Scotland) Act, local spatial management plans and SPA projects. The newsletter also includes long term trend analysis for local fish and bird populations, along with information on climate change indicator species and monitoring projects.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHart, D.R. 2006. When do marine reserves increase fishery yield? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63 7, 1445-1449
Summary The author develops an age-structured model to analyse the effects of marine reserves on fishery yield and stock persistence. The assumptions that larvae are well mixed and a negligible exchange of adults between open and closed areas are applied. The model is applied to canary rockfish and Georges Bank sea scallop.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceHart, D.R. 2006. When do marine reserves increase fishery yield? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63 7, 1445-1449
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Summary An opportunity for coordinating a new European focussed project investigating the scientifc evidence for marine reserves, with Oregon State University, USA.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHastings, A. & Botsford, L.W. 2003. Comparing designs of marine reserves for fisheries and for biodiversity. Ecological Applications, 13 sp1, 65-70
Summary The authors use simple models in an idealized setting to compare and contrast the design of marine reserve networks for the maintenance of fisheries yields and for conserving biodiversity. Reserves as large as possible would meet conservation goals where as maintaining fisheries yields would be achieved by making reserves as small as possible to maximise larval export outside of reserves.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceEuropean Commission 2010. Coastal structures change marine ecosystems , 191, 1 pp.
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Summary The urbanisation of coastal areas and introduction of man-made structures, such as jetties and seawalls, are changing marine environments. A new analysis highlights the impacts of these changes on marine plants and animals and suggests options to manage the detrimental effects.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHewitt, J.E., Anderson, M.J. & Thrush, S.F. 2005. Assessing and monitoring ecological community health in marine systems. Ecological Applications, 15 3, 942-953
Summary The study addresses the need to develop methods for the assessing the ecological significance of observed changes. The authors use a multivariate approach of monitoring community composition with the aim of determining whether sites are improving or degrading over time. The method would be useful for assessing the efficiency of management decisions.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceGouhier, T.C., Guichet, F., Menge, B.A. Levin, S.A. 2010. Ecological processes can synchronize marine population dynamics over continental scales Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 107 18, 8281-8286
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Summary New research indicates that marine life can communicate over thousands of kilometres, calling into question current fishery management and marine preservation practices. Using mathematical modeling and data from natural populations, Guichard and colleagues at Oregon State University find a phenomenon similar to the butterfly effect, whereby the actions of one individual can cause a series of chain reactions.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceHiddink, J.G., Hutton, T., Jennings, S. & Kaiser, M.J. 2006. Predicting the effects of area closures and fishing effort restrictions on the production, biomass, and species richness of benthic invertebrate communities. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 63 5, 822-830
Summary Modelling illustrated that the effect of closures of areas of different sizes in different locations on benthic communities could be positive or negative. The strongest positive effect on benthic communities was seen when lightly fished areas, in the absence of effort controls were closed. The method is an effective approach that can be used to implement an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF).
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBulleri, F., Chapman, M. G. Frid, C. 2009. The introduction of coastal infrastructure as a driver of change in marine environments Journal of Applied Ecology, 47 1, 26-35
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Summary The urbanisation of coastal areas and introduction of man-made structures, such as jetties and seawalls, are changing marine environments. A new analysis highlights the impacts of these changes on marine plants and animals and suggests options to manage the detrimental effects. The study, supported by the EU's MarBEF project, summarises current knowledge on the impacts of urban infrastructure on marine habitats.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceHiddink, J.G., Jennings, S. & Kaiser, M.J. 2007. Assessing and predicting the relative ecological impacts of disturbance on habitats with different sensitivities. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44 , 405-413
Summary This paper reports on a method developed for assessing the sensitivity of seabed habitats to physical disturbance, allowing habitat sensitivity to be defined and mapped at large spatial scales. Its proposed use is for managers establishing spatial management plans to predict the effect of changing patterns of human impact on seabed habitats.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceThurstan, R.H., Brockington, S., Roberts, C.M. 2010. The effects of 118 years of industrial fishing on UK bottom trawl fisheries Nature communications, 1 15,
Summary According to new research, the UK trawl fishing fleet has to work 17 times harder to catch the same amount of fish today as it did when most of its boats were powered by sail. Using UK Government data on the amount of fish caught and the size and number of boats involved, researchers from the University of York and the Marine Conservation Society analysed the change in fish stocks since 1889. It was found that trawl fish landings peaked in 1937, 14 times higher than today, and the availability of bottom-living fish to the fleet fell by 94 per cent.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJaworski, A., Solmundsson, J. & Ragnarsson, S.A. 2006. The effect of area closures on the demersal fish community off the east coast of Iceland. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 63 5, 897-911
Summary This paper examined the effect of two protected areas on the demersal fish community comparing closed areas with adjacent fished areas. The results indicated that closed areas had favourable impacts on several species. One area was reopened and the beneficial changes from closure were reversed in 7 years.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceKostylev, E.F., Tkachenko, F.P., Tretiak, I.P. 2010. Establishment of "Zernov's Phyllophora field" marine reserve: Protection and restoration of a unique system. Ocean & Coastal Management, ,
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Summary Zernov's Phyllophora field is the first offshore, fully marine MPA in the Black Sea. The reserve covers an area of 402,500 ha, and is made up of dense agarophyte stands. This article details comparative results from a number of surveys of the area detailing its present state, and giving potential methods for its preservation and future restoration.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceJennings, S. 2000. Patterns and prediction of population recovery in marine reserves. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 10 2, 209-231
Summary The factors that influence fish population recovery following the implementation of marine reserves are considered. Patterns of recovery in numbers and biomass are described and a method for the prediction of recovery rates is suggested.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceLanghamer, O., Haikonen, K., Sundberg, J. 2010. Wave power-Sustainable energy or environmentally costly? A review with special emphasis on linear wave energy converters Renewable and Sustainbale Energy Reviews, 14 4, 1329-1335
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Summary With many wave power technologies now on the verge of becoming commercially viable, this review conducted by a team of Swedish researchers highlights a number of ways that wave energy converters can produce ecological benefits for marine life, including creation of artificial reef no-take zones, and substrate for bio-fouling. Potential negative effects that are also covered include, marine bio-acoustics and disruption of electromagnetic fields used for navigation. Taking examples from a current Swedish project, current and future research areas are also discussed.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceJessopp, M.J. & McAllen, R.J. 2007. Water retention and limited larval dispersal: implications for short and long distance dispersers in marine reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 333 , 27-36
Summary The dispersal of larvae is important in determining whether marine reserves can: sustain themselves, exchange larvae with other protected sites or supplement nearby exploited areas. This factor is therefore important in marine reserve design. The study found different temporal and spatial larval assemblages to exist within a semi-enclosed marine reserve, a bay with low water retention and along open coastline.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceRoberts, C. 2010. Guidance on the size and spacing of Marine Protected Areas in England Natural England. 87 pp.
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Summary The report commissioned by Natural England reviews current knowledge of adult and larval dispersal distances around UK waters to support decision making on how to maximise connectivity within a future ecologically coherent Marine Protected Area Network. Viability of suggested MPA sites is also assessed in light of the new Marine and Coastal Access Act.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJones, P. 2007. Point-of-view: arguments for conventional fisheries management and against no-take marine protected areas: only half of the story? Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 17 1, 31-43
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Summary A review of recent arguments for conventional fisheries management approaches and against no-take marine protected areas, resulting from the contrasting aims of the two methods i.e. different objectives and different science.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceTeixeira, H., Borja, A., Weisberg, S.B., Ranasinghe, J.A., Cadien, D.B., Dauer, D.B., Dauvin, J., Degrraer, S., Diaz, R.J., Gremare, A., Karakassis, I., Llanso, R.J., Lovell, L.L., Marques, J., Montagne, D.E., Occhipinti Ambrogi, A., Rosenburg, R., 2010. Assessing coastal benthic macrofauna community condition using best professional judgement - Developing consensus across North America and Europe Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60 4,
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Summary This study assesses the level of agreement seen between 16 benthic experts from the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Europe and the West and East coasts of the USA to see if using best professional judgement is a viable method of comparing ecosystem condition indices. High levels of agreement were found from the experts when rating the condition of the sites and assessing levels of impact. The study therefore supports the European Water Framework Directive's suggestion to viably implement this method.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceKaplan, D.M. 2006. Alongshore advection and marine reserves: consequences for modeling and management. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 309 , 11-24
Summary The consequences of alongshore advection in the presence of a marine reserve are examined, for a fish species which has widely dispersing larvae and sedentary adults. The results suggest that spacing between reserves should be variable in order to protect a diverse group of species with differential dispersal patterns.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceRondinini, C., Chiozza, F. 2010. Quantitative methods for defining percentage area targets for habitat types in conservation planning Biological conservation, 143 7, 1646-1653
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Summary This study looks at the different methodologies available for defining percentage area targets for habitat types within protected area network design. This was achieved through a review of data requirements and scope for a number of methods, and through discussing their strengths and limitations.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceKaplan, D.M., Botsford, L.W. & Jorgensen, S. 2006. Dispersal per recruit: an efficient method for assessing sustainability in marine reserve networks. Ecological Applications, 16 6, 2248-2263
Summary A method for assessing a marine reserve configuration for persistence and yield of a population with sedentary adults and dispersing larvae is developed. Results indicate that when all post-settlement habitats are saturated with settlers, maximal fisheries yields are achieved. The authors apply the method to a realistic proposed marine reserve configuration.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceHill, J., Pearce, B., Georgiou, L., Pinnion, J., Gallyot, J. 2010. Meeting the MPA Network Principle of Viability: Feature specific recommendations for species and habitats of conservation importance. Natural England Commissioned Reports, Number 043. Natural England. 189 pp.
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Summary This report was produced to provide advice on viability, one of the seven Marine Protected Area (MPA) network design principles. The research used existing literature to provide evidence on the viable area required to conserve habitats and species of conservation importance, and is produced in conjunction with several other Ecological Network Guidance reports produced by Natural England and the JNCC for the MCZ project.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceKelly, S., Scott, D. & MacDiarmid, A.B. 2002. The value of a spillover fishery for spiny lobsters around a marine reserve in northern New Zealand. Coastal Management, 30 2, 153-166
Summary The contribution of a marine reserve to the local spiny lobster fishery was examined, comparing catch characteristics from locations at varying distances from the reserve. Around the marine reserve fewer but larger lobsters were caught. The amount of money made per trap haul was similar at all sites.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceThurstan, R.H., Roberts, C.M., Hawkins, J.P. and Neves, L. 2009. Highly protected Marine Conservation Zones: defining damaging and disturbing activities. CCW. 91 pp.
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Summary This report aims to review the activities that occur in Highly Protected Marine Conservation Zones (HPMCZs) around the world, to provide clear definitions of HPMCZ related terms, to define the circumstances for potentially damaging or disturbing activities, and to provide suggested conservation objectives for HPMCZs.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceKinlan, B.P. & Gaines, S.D. 2003. Propagule dispersal in marine and terrestrial environments: a community perspective. Ecology, 84 8, 2007-2020
Summary This paper assesses variation in marine dispersal scales by estimating dispersal distances from genetic isolation-by-distance slopes. Differences in dispersal scale influence marine community dynamics and therefore marine reserve design.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceRice, C. 2010. Marine Protected Area Network Report North Sea Marine Cluster. 40 pp.
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Summary This North Sea Marine CLuster commissioned studiy looks at the implementation of MPAs, through global case studies and within the UK, and what can be done to ensure that they are more than just 'paper parks'. The study also looks at how the potential tensions between conservation and safeguarding the marine economy might be resolved.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceKritzer, J.P. 2004. Effects of noncompliance on the success of alternative designs of marine protected-area networks for conservation and fisheries management. Conservation Biology, 18 4, 1021-1031
Summary The author uses a model based on a hypothetical marine fishery to examine the effect of violation of MPAs which usually occurs at boundaries. The model shows that a network of small MPAs produces higher fishing yields under full compliance. As violation increases a single large MPA is more effective. Noncompliance should therefore be considered in MPA design.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceLanglois, T.J., Anderson, M.J., Babcock, R.C. & Kato, S. 2006. Marine reserves demonstrate trophic interactions across habitats. Oecologia, 147 1, 134-140
Summary The results of the study indicate that marine reserves are essential for investigating how depletion from fishing pressure can alter the role of upper-level predators and trophic processes between habitats.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceLanglois, T.J. & Ballantine, W.J. 2005. Marine ecological research in New Zealand: developing predictive models through the study of no-take marine reserves. Conservation Biology, 19 6, 1763-1770
Summary The paper considers whether existing conceptual models of population and community structure based on data from exploited systems lacks the baseline information of natural states needed to make forecasts for new reserves. The paper highlights the need for results from a system of reserves which are broadly comparable and are representative of all major habitats within all bioregions to enable ecosystem dynamics to be investigated.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceLeslie, H., Ruckelshaus, M., Ball, I.R., Andelman, S. & Possingham, H.P. 2003. Using siting algorithms in the design of marine reserve networks. Ecological Applications, 13 sp1, 185-198
Summary The paper uses benthic habitat data to demonstrate how siting algorithms can aid the identification of potential marine reserve networks which represent target habitat types.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceLeslie, H.M. 2005. A synthesis of marine conservation planning approaches. Consrevation Biology, 19 6, 1701-1713
Summary The paper reports on a database which synthesises information on marine conservation planning cases from around the world. It is suggested that documentation of marine conservation should incorporate a standard set of elements (ecological, social, economic and institutional) to aid evaluation of success. Examples of reserves that failed and the reasons for failure are highlighted.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceLindholm, J., Auster, P. & Valentine, P. 2004. Role of a large marine protected area for conserving landscape attributes of sand habitats on Georges Bank (NW Atlantic). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 269 , 61-68
Summary This paper examined the relative abundance of microhabitat features within and outside a marine reserve closed to fishing. Results showed that from 7 common microhabitats, differences in the relative abundance between fished and unfished areas were only seen in 2 microhabitats. This indicates that in some microhabitats the ability of the system to recover matches the level of fishing activity.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceSanchez Lizaso, J.L., Goni, R., Renones, O., Garcia Charton, J.A., Galzin, R., Bayle, J.T., Sanchez Jerez, P., Perez Ruzafa, A. & Ramos, A.A. 2000. Density dependence in marine protected populations: a review. Environmental Conservation, 27 2, 144-158
Summary This review combines the information on resource limitation in marine ecosystems, density-dependent changes in life-history traits of exploited populations and evidence on biomass export from MPAs. The role of MPAs in testing hypotheses is highlighted as is the use of MPAs as fisheries management tools.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceLockwood, D.R., Hastings, A. & Botsford, L.W. 2002. The effects of dispersal patterns on marine reserves: does the tail wag the dog? Theoretical Population Biology, 61 3, 297-309
Summary This paper analyses a broad range of planktonic dispersal patterns, examining the effect on a single isolated reserve of various sizes receiving no external larvae and multiple reserves with varying degrees of connectivity.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceLundquist, C.J. & Granek, E.F. 2005. Strategies for successful marine conservation: intergrating socioeconomic, political, and scientific factors. Conservation Biology, 19 6, 1771-1778
Summary A review of the characteristics and approaches that have contributed to successful and unsuccessful marine conservation efforts.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceLynch, T.P. 2006. Incorporation of recreational fishing effort into design of marine protected areas. Conservation Biology, 20 5, 1466-1476
Summary Modelling showed that recreational fisheries are strongly correlated with specific habitats, which may lead to reduced effectiveness of reserves unless habitats are factored into reserve design.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceLynch, T.P., Wilkinson, E., Melling, L., Hamilton, R., Macready, A. & Feary, S. 2004. Conflicts and impacts of divers and anglers in a marine park. Environmental Management, 33 2, 196-211
Summary This paper examines a case study of how the problem of two conflicting user groups was overcome during the implementation of a marine park.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceMace, A.J. & Morgan, S.G. 2006. Larval accumulation in the lee of a small headland: implications for the design of marine reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 318 , 19-29
Summary A case study of the larval settlement of benthic invertebrates on the windward and lee sides of a headland during a period of upwelling. The authors indicate the importance of including larval accumulation zones in marine reserve networks in recruitment-limited upwelling regions to supply adult populations with propagules.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceMcCallum, H., Gerber, L. & Jani, A. 2005. Does infectious disease influence the efficacy of marine protected areas? A theoretical framework. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42 4, 688-698
Summary A primary aim of marine reserves is to increase the density of exploited populations however, this may facilitate parasite transmission. The equilibrium yield and parasite prevalence inside and outside a reserve were investigated using a model of microparasitic infection in a fishery. The authors concluded that pathogens have important implications for marine reserve design.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceFiorenza, M. & Halpern, B.S. 2005. Low functional redundancy in coastal marine assemblages. Ecology Letters, 8 4, 391-400
Summary The study uses two data sets to test how variation in species diversity translates into changes in functional diversity. It was found that the recovery of species diversity in marine reserves coincides with increased functional diversity of fish assemblages.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceMicheli, F., Halpern, B.S., Botsford, L.W. & Warner, R.R. 2004. Trajectories and correlates of community change in no-take marine reserves. Ecological Applications, 14 6, 1709-1712
Summary The paper addresses how marine assemblages change and the time scales involved as they recover from fishing and other human impacts within no-take reserves. Meta-analyses of published data are used to draw several key conclusions. The importance of long term monitoring and modelling studies are highlighted.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceMilazzo, M., Badalamenti, F., Ceccherelli, G. & Chemello, R. 2004. Boat anchoring on Posidonia oceanica beds in a marine protected area (Italy, western Mediterranean): effect of anchor types in different anchoring stages. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 299 1, 51-62
Summary The study aimed to quantify the damage caused to seagrass beds by anchoring. Results showed that anchoring even by small boats using low-impact anchors may have detrimental effects in the long term. The authors recommend an educational approach to management rather than restricting anchor use which is difficult to enforce.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceMurawski, S.A., Wigley, S.E., Fogarty, M.J., Rago, P.J. & Mountain, D.G. 2005. Effort distribution and catch patterns adjacent to temperate MPAs. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62 6, 1150-1167
Summary Analysis of the spatial distribution of otter trawl fishing effort displayed for some species, the existence of density gradients consistent with spill-over from MPAs. Revenues per hour trawled were greater closer to the MPA boundary, although the catch variability was greater in comparison to more distant catches.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceNicholson, E. & Possingham, H.P. 2007. Making conservation decisions under uncertainty for the persistence of multiple species. Ecological Applications, 17 1, 251-265
Summary This paper demonstrates that robust conservation decisions can be made when the uncertainties of the multiple-species problem appear overwhelming. The value of incorporating uncertainty into the decision-making process is highlighted.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferencePalumbi, S.R., Gaines, S.D., Leslie, H. & Warner, R.R. 2003. New wave: high-tech tools to help marine reserve research. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1 2, 73-79
Summary Information is needed on the impact reserves have on the surrounding ecosystems and how complex ecological and environmental data can be used in management decisions. This paper describes four tools to help design marine reserves: ocean sensing, chemical tags and genetic comparisons and mapping programs for GIS databases. These tools describe ecosystem patterns on temporal and spatial scales relevant to conservation management.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferencePauly. D., Christensen, V., Guenette, S., Pitcher, T.J., Sumaila, U.R., Walters, C.J., Watson, R. & Zeller, D. 2002. Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature, 418 8, 689-695
Summary The decline in global fish catches since the late 1980s is highlighted. The need for marine reserves to limit fishing effort and therefore allow sustainable fisheries is presented.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferencePlanes, S., Galzin, R., Garcia Rubies, A., Goñi, R., Harmelin, J.G., Le Diréach, L., Lenfant, P. & Quetglas, A. 2000. Effects of marine protected areas on recruitment processes with special reference to Mediterranean littoral ecosystems Environmental Conservation, 27 2, 126-143
Summary The paper reviews concepts and field evidence concerning the enhancement of recruitment of species in MPAs focussing on the Mediterranean littoral but also using examples from elsewhere. The main points considered are whether the increase in biomass of species within MPAs effects the recruitment within and outside MPAs and the effects of competition and predation on new recruits.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceRoberts, C.M. 2000. Selecting marine reserve locations: optimality versus opportunism. Bulletin of Marine Science, 66 3, 581-592
Summary Some of the main factors affecting the performance of reserves and how these factors may influence the approach to reserve location are examined. The author argues for an opportunistic rather than an optimality approach, locating reserves using a bet-hedging strategy against variability and uncertainty based on prior scientific knowledge.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceRoberts, C.M., Andelman, S., Branch, G., Bustamante, R.H., Castilla, J.C., Dugan, J., Halpern, B.S., Lafferty, K.D., Leslie, H., Lubchenco, J., McArdle, D., Possingham, H.P., Ruckelshaus, M. & Warner, R.R. 2003. Ecological criteria for evaluating candidate sites for marine reserves. Ecological Applications, 13 sp1, 199-214
Summary Social, economic and biological criteria are used to select the location of marine reserves. However, biological criteria are not always given the greatest weight. The authors have therefore developed a series of criteria to conduct preliminary evaluation of candidate sites according to their relative biological values. Socioeconomic data can then be applied at a later stage. The scheme allows the assessment of sites in terms of their biodiversity, the processes underpinning the biodiversity and the processes which support fisheries and thereby provide a range of other services important to people.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceRoberts, C.M., Branch, G., Bustamante, R.H., Castilla, J.C., Dugan, J., Halpern, B.S., Lafferty, K.D., Leslie, H., Lubchenco, J., McArdle, D., Ruckelshaus, M. & Warner, R.R. 2003. Application of ecological criteria in selecting marine reserves and developing reserve networks. Ecological Applications, 13 sp1, 215-228
Summary A procedure is proposed to develop interconnected networks of MPAs that will accomplish multiple objectives. The procedure is based on the current understanding of ecological processes, allowing evaluation and selection of reserve sites. The importance of biological rather than socioeconomic criteria in the selection of marine reserves to ensure their efficacy is highlighted.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceRoberts, C.M., Hawkins, J.P. & Gell, F.R. 2005. The role of marine reserves in achieving sustainable fisheries. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences., 360 1453, 123-132
Summary The paper highlights that the use of fishery management tools in conservation is limited as shown by the continuing decline in global fish stocks. The need for marine reserves to be incorporated into modern fishery management is raised. The benefits to fisheries created by marine reserves are discussed.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceSale, P.F., Cowen, R.K., Danilowicz, B.S., Jones, G.P., Kritzer, J.P., Linderman, K.C., Planes, S., Polunin, N.V.C., Russ, G.R., Sadovy, Y.J. & Steneck, R.S. 2005. Critical science gaps impede use of no-take fishery reserves. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 20 2, 74-80
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Summary This paper highlights the existing gaps in scientific knowledge which may prevent the effective use of reserves as fishery management tools. The most crucial gaps are identified and ways to fill them are suggested in order to create an effective management tool for marine fisheries.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceSanchirico, J.N., Malvadkar, U., Hastings, A. & Wilen, J.E. 2006. When are no-take zones an economically optimal fishery management strategy? Ecological Applications, 16 5, 1643-1659
Summary The authors develop an ecological-economic model to examine the effects of spatial management on fishery profits and to determine when a reserve should be created.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceSchwartz, M.K., Luikart, G. & Waples, R.S. 2007. Genetic monitoring as a promising tool for conservation and management. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 22 1, 25-33
Summary This paper illustrates how DNA and population genetic data can provide valuable information in the monitoring of species which are of interest in terms of their ecology, conservation and management.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceShanks, A.L., Grantham, B.A. & Carr, M.H. 2003. Propagule dispersal distance and the size and spacing of marine reserves. Ecological Applications, 13 sp1, 159-169
Summary Available data on the dispersal distance of the propagules of benthic marine organisms was compiled. Where it existed, data on the time propagules spent dispersing was incorporated. The authors used the information to suggest the optimal size and spacing of marine reserves to account for short and long-distance dispersing propagules respectively. An optimal size of 4-6km in diameter and spacing of 10-20km were proposed.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceShears, N.T. & Babcock, R.C. 2002. Marine reserves demonstrate top-down control of community structure on temperate reefs. Oecologia, 132 1, 131-142
Summary This study replicated ecological experiments in marine reserves and adjacent unprotected areas. Patterns were observed which indicated a top-down role of predators in structuring shallow reef communities. The results also revealed the role of marine reserves in reversing the indirect effects of fishing and re-establishing community-level trophic cascades.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceShears, N.T. & Babcock, R.C. 2003. Continuing tropic cascade effects after 25 years of no-take marine reserve protection. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 246 , 1-16
Summary This paper establishes additional evidence for a trophic cascade in the Leigh marine reserve. The influence of short-term disturbances such as disease on shifts in community type is highlighted.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceShears, N.T., Grace, R.V., Usmar, N.R., Kerr, V. & Babcock, R.C. 2006. Long-term trends in lobster populations in a partially protected vs. no-take marine park. Biological Conservation, 132 2, 222-231
Summary The long-term data on spiny lobster abundance before and after the establishment of a marine park was used to assess the efficacy of a no-take marine park and a recreationally fished marine park. Analysis showed that lobster populations recovered in no-take MPAs, while the recreationally fished park had little effect on lobster abundance.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceSmith, M.D., Zhang, J. & Coleman, F.C. 2006. Effectiveness of marine reserves for large-scale fisheries management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63 1, 153-164
Summary Methods from program evaluation are adapted and using fishery-dependent data, the effects of establishing a marine reserve on fisheries are quantified. The effects of a policy at the individual vessel level are analysed, accommodating the coarse spatial resolution of fishing logbooks. The model is applied to the Gulf of Mexico reef-fish fishery. The results show the effect of two recently established marine reserves on catch to be negative.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceSoto, C.G. 2001. The potential impacts of global climate change on marine protected areas. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 11 3, 181-195
Summary The paper highlights the lack of literature on the effects of global climate change on marine protected areas. A framework summarizing some important oceanographic processes and how they link to food chains are reviewed. The review makes suggestions on the basis that due to climate change, species abundances and distributions may change, potentially affecting the efficacy of MPAs as biodiversity conservation tools.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceSteele, J.H. 1996. Regime shifts in fisheries management. Fisheries Research, 25 1, 19-23
Summary The author proposes that the collapse of fisheries around the North Atlantic creates opportunities for managers and scientists in terms of restructuring the form in which advice is given and the research it is based upon.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceSteele, J.H. & Beet, A.R. 2003. Marine protected areas in ‘nonlinear’ ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences , 270 2, S230-S233
Summary This paper highlights how the introduction of large MPAs with zero or low harvesting and no reduction in fishing effort can result in increased yield in depleted stocks. However, the observed increases are less than those achieved by reducing fishing effort.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceStefansson, G. & Rosenberg, A.A. 2005. Combining control measures for more effective management of fisheries under uncertainty: quotas, effort limitation and protected areas. Philiosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 360 1453, 133-146
Summary Three control measures for fisheries management are considered when the input information for policy decisions is uncertain. Modelling showed that the most effective method for reducing stock collapse and maintaining economic performance was achieved by combining a large closed area with catch quota control. The authors recommend the use of closed areas to buffer uncertainty.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceStewart, R.R., Ball, I.R. & Possingham, H.P. 2007. The effect of incremental reserve design and changing reservation goals on the long-term efficiency of reserve systems. Conservation Biology, 21 2, 346-354
Summary The paper highlights how marine reserve selection is often based on conserving percentages of a bioregion and how this percentage may need to be increased in the future resulting in the assembly of marine reserves over a period of years (incremental reserve design). The authors use South Australia as a case study which shows that incremental design of marine reserves does not reduce efficiency when compared with purpose-built reserve systems. The important role of systematic approaches in efficient reserve design is highlighted.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceStewart, R. & Possingham, H. 2005. Efficiency, costs and trade-offs in marine reserve system design. Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 10 3, 203-213
Summary The paper uses the commercial rock lobster in South Australia as a case study. Socio-economic and biophysical information are integrated in mathematical reserve selection procedures for marine reserve system design. The way in which a reserve planner might prioritise conservation areas using information on a planning units selection frequency is considered.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceStokesbury, K.D.E. & Harris, B.P. 2006. Impact of limited short-term sea scallop fishery on epibenthic community of Georges Bank closed areas. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 307 , 85-100
Summary Two areas closed to sea scallop fishing since 1994 were opened for a limited period of six months. The effects were examined using a before/after, control/impact (BACI) design. The study found that in the short-term the natural dynamic environmental conditions (sediment composition) altered the epibenthic community more than the scallop fishery.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceSutherland, W.J., Armstrong-Brown, S., Armsworth, P.R., Brereton, T., Brickland, J., Campbell, C.D., Chamberlain, D.E., Cooke, A.I., Dulvy, N.K., Dusic, N.R., Fitton, M., Freckleton, R.P., Godfray, H.C.J., Grout, N., Harvey, H.J., et al. 2006. The identification of 100 ecological questions of high policy prevalence in the UK. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43 4, 617-627
Summary This paper was compiled by representatives from 28 organizations and 10 academic institutions. It contained two questions directly focussed on MPAs. The first concerned the size and location of MPAs in order to protect biodiversity and enhance nearby fisheries. The second considered the impact of MPAs on wide ranging migratory species such as haddock and cod.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceStelzenmuller, V., Maynou, F. & Martin, P. 2007. Spatial assessment of benefits of a coastal Mediterranean marine protected area. Biological Conservation, 136 4, 571-583
Summary The paper highlights how evidence of marine reserve functioning is lacking due to the influence of spatio-temporal variations on fish populations and habitat heterogeneity. The authors use geostatistical and geographical information system (GIS) tools to conduct a spatial analysis of the benefits of an MPA, providing major insights into a complex system and aiding marine conservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceVilla, F., Tunesi, L. & Agardy, T. 2002. Zoning marine protected areas through spatial multiple-criteria analysis: the case of the Asinara Island marine reserve of Italy. Conservation Biology, 16 2, 515-526
Summary The authors illustrate how the suitability of marine areas for different uses and levels of protection can be determined through the use of spatial multiple-criteria analysis. The technique incorporates geographic information systems (GIS) and a formal statement of the design priorities according to the varying viewpoints of all stakeholders. The method is applied in developing a zoning plan for an Italian marine reserve.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceWagner, L.D., Ross, J.V. & Possingham, H.P. 2007. Catastrophe management and inter-reserve distance for marine reserve networks. Ecological Modelling, 201 1, 82-88
Summary The paper considers the effect of a catastrophe on marine reserve placement. The optimal distance between two reserves is established based on a trade-off between the probability of colonisation of an empty reserve by an occupied reserve and the probability of a catastrophe causing extinction in both reserves.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceWarner, R.R., Swearer, S.E. & Caselle, J.E. 2000. Larval accumulation and retention: implications for the design of marine reserves and essential habitat. Bulletin of Marine Science, 66 3, 821-830
Summary This paper highlights the importance of determining the dynamics of larval accumulation and retention and incorporating them into the design of MPAs and essential fish habitat.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceWillis, T.J., Badalamenti, F. & Milazzo, M. 2006. Diel variability in counts of reef fishes and its implications for monitoring. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 331 1, 108-120
Summary The degree of temporal variability in temperate reef fish counts was tested within and between days at the same sites in New Zealand and Italy. Repeated counts separated by months resulted in relatively different assemblages. Counts separated by days did not show different assemblages although certain species showed differing densities between morning and afternoon. The authors stress that care must be taken to prevent the introduction of systematic bias into monitoring.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceWillis, T.J., Millar, R.B., Babcock, R.C. & Tolimieri, N. 2003. Burdens of evidence and the benefits of marine reserves: putting Descartes before des horse? Environmental Conservation, 30 , 97-103
Summary The relative effort put into empirical and theoretical approaches to predict the effects of reserves and the quality of empirical evidence available to support theoretical predictions are assessed by the critical review of literature published between 1990 and 2001.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferencePalumbi, S.R. 2004. Marine reserves and ocean neighborhoods: the spatial scale of marine populations and their management. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 29 , 31-68
Summary Marine spatial neighbourhoods are brought about by the movement of individuals. Four fields which demonstrate the scale of marine neighbourhoods are reviewed to suggest neighbourhood sizes for invertebrates and fish. The problems and solutions of using marine reserves to protect species with different neighbourhood sizes are discussed.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceRiojo-Nieto, R. & Sheppard, C. 2008. Effects of management strategies on the landscape ecology of a Marine Protected Area. Ocean & Coastal Management, 51 5, 397-404
Summary This paper seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the Cozumel Reefs National Park on protecting the various marine habitats within its boundaries. Using measures of beta-diversity the authors show that the regulations and management policies currently in place are having a positive effect on preserving habitat integrity.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceDEFRA. 2008. Protecting our marine environment through the Marine Bill. DEFRA. 1-16
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Summary This brochure outlines how the Marine Bill will be implemented to help protect Britain's marine environment.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCountryside Council for Wales. 2005. Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries / Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd European Marine Site. Countryside Council for Wales. 1-114
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Summary Comprising: Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries / Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd Special Area of Conservation Bae Caerfyrddin/ Carmarthen Bay Special Protection Area & Ramsar Burry Inlet Special Protection Area and Ramsar. Countryside Council for Wales' advice given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature & Countryside Council for Wales. 2004. The Dee Estuary European Marine Site. English Nature & the Countryside Council for Wales. 1-252
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Summary Comprising: Dee Estuary / Aber Dyfrdwy possible Special Area of Conservation The Dee Estuary Special Protection Area & potential Special Protection Area The Dee Estuary Ramsar Site & proposed Ramsar Site. English Nature & the Countryside Council for Wales' draft advice given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCountryside Council for Wales. 2005. Advice provided by the Countryside Council for Wales in fulfilment of Regulation 33 of the Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994 for Y Fenai a Bae Conwy / Menai Strait and Conwy Bay European Marine Site. Countryside Council for Wales. 1-87
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Summary Encompassing: Y Fenai a Bae Conwy / Menai Strait and Conwy Bay Special Area of Conservation, Traeth Lafan / Lafan Sands Special Protection Area, Ynys Seiriol / Puffin Island Special Protection Area.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCountryside Council for Wales. 2005. Draft advice provided by the Countryside Council for Wales in fulfilment of Regulation 33 of the Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994 for Pen Llyn a'r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau European Marine Site. Countryside Council for Wales. 1-76
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Summary Encompassing: Pen Llyn a'r Sarnau / Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau Special Area of Conservation, Glannau Aberdaron ac Ynys Enlli / Aberdaron Coast and Bardsey Island Special Protection Area, Mynydd Cilan, Trwyn y Wylfa ac Ynysoedd Sant Tudwal Special Protection, Area Aber Dyfi / Dyfi Estuary Special Protection Area
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCountryside Council for Wales. 2005. Pembrokeshire Marine European Marine Site Regulation 33 Advice. Countryside Council for Wales. 1-238
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Summary Advice provided by Countryside Council for Wales' in fulfilment of Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCountryside Council for Wales. 2005. Cardigan Bay European Marine Site. Countryside Council for Wales. 1-125
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Summary Countryside Council for Wales' advice given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature & Countryside Council for Wales. 2005. The Severn Estuary Special Protection Area European Marine Site. English Nature & the Countryside Council for Wales. 1-63
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Summary English Nature & the Countryside Council for Wales' advice for the Severn Estuary Special Protection Area given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Ascrib, Isay and Dunvegan Special Area of Conservation Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994 (as amended). Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-9
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994 (as amended)
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceFortune, F. & Quigley, M. 2000. Managing the Berwickshire & North Northumberland Coast European Marine Site. European Commission's Life Nature Programme. 1-90
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Summary Management scheme for the Berwickshire & North Northumberland Coast SAC
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceSolandt, J-L. 2008. Marine Local Biodiversity Action Plan Guidance Manual for England. Marine Conservation Society. 1-90
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Summary The manual is designed to provide information and advice for Local Biodiversity Action Plan Officers about the marine species and habitats that occur within their regions.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCovey, R. 2008. Marine casework: standards and guidance. .
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Summary Roger Covey's presentation introduced a workshop breakout session to look at the inconsistencies in marine casework. In addition to highlight potential areas where casework inconsistencies may arise, it asked why it might matter that there are differences, in particular those which are not necessarily site specific. Finally the presentation promoted discussion on how MPA practitioners could standardise casework through discussion and guidance material.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHume, C. 2008. Does Site Condition Monitoring help with management of marine SACs? .
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Summary The presentation looks at how site condition monitoring (SCM) may help with management of marine SACs. The talk first summarizes the Scottish approach to SCM before using various examples to show whether SCM has helped with management of a site. Finally the presentation looks at the approaches to resolving issues and final outcomes.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJackson, E.L., Hiscock, K., Evans, J., Seeley, B. & Lear, D., 2008. Investigating the existing coverage and subsequent gaps in protection and providing guidance on representativity and replication for a coherent network of Marine Protected Areas in England's territorial waters. Marine Life Information Network (MarLIN). 138 pp.
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Summary An investigation to identify the existing coverage and subsequent gaps in protection and to provide guidance on representativity and replication for a coherent network of Marine Protected Areas in England's territorial waters.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceHart, P.J.B., Blyth R.E., Kaiser, M.J. & Edwards-Jones, G. 2004. The conservation effects of a gear restriction agreement off the southwest coast of England. Theme Session in the Conserving Biodiversity and Sustaining Fisheries through MPAs, CM 2004 Y11,
Summary This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a voluntary restriction of fishing effort on epibenthic communities in the south Devon area. The study concentrates on the conservation effects on scallop population and on the fish community. Results of the study showed that in the protected area the epibenthic fauna was more diverse, scallops presented larger gonads and mean weight of above-average sized individuals of two ray species and three flatfish species was greater.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBlyth, R.E., Kaiser, M.J., Edwards-Jones, G. & Hart, J.P.B. 2002. Voluntary management in an inshore fishery has conservation benefits. Environmental Conservation, 29 4, 493-508.
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Summary Fishers' (static and towed gear sector) perceptions and attitudes towards the Inshore Potting Agreement (a voluntary fishery management system designed and operated by inshore fishers of South Devon, England) are reported in this study.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBlyth, R.E., Kaiser, M.J., Edwards-Jones, G. & Hart, J.P.B. 2005. Biological and Socio-Economic Implications of a Limited-Access Fishery management system. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 41 , 833 pp.
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Summary The paper evaluates the biological and socio-economic effects of a limited access fishery in south Devon (England). The economic implications of the management were determined through interviews with interested parties. Positive biological effects were found using long-term recreational angling data sets. Results indicated that this particular management had social and economic benefits for the local community.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBlyth, R.E., Kaiser, M.J., Edwards-Jones G. & Hart, P.J.B. 2004. Implications of a zoned fishery management system for marine benthic communities. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41 5, 951-961.
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Summary This paper investigates the large-scale chronic impacts of towed fishing gears in a zoned commercial fishery management system in south Devon. The Inshore Potting Agreement (IPA) was established in 1978 to restrict the use of towed gear in inshore areas that had traditionally been used by static-gear fishers. The study found that areas where only static gear fishers had been operating for over a period of 2 years presented greater benthic community biomass than areas where towed gears operate. The IPA has maintained benthic species that are important for the settlement and survival of others.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBlyth-Skyrme, R.E., Kaiser, M.J., Hiddink, J.G, Edwards-Jones, G. & Hart, P.J.B. 2006. Conservation benefits of temperate marine protected areas: variation among fish species. Conservation Biology, 20 3, 811-820.
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Summary This paper analyses the effects of marine protected areas in temperate waters. Trends in sportfishing catches over a period of 29 years were analysed for nine fish species in an area influenced by a large towed-fishing-gear restriction zone and in adjacent areas under conventional fishery management controls. Mean weight of above-average-sized fish of certain species was greatest within the area influenced by the fishing-gear restriction zone. Weight of trophy fish of species that mature early declined less and slower over time within the area influenced by the fishing-gear restriction zone. Mean reported weight of trophy fish of species that mature late and those that undertake extensive spatial movements declined at the same rate in all areas.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceLangston, W.J., Chesman, B.S., Burt, G.R., Hawkins, S.J., Readman, J. & Worsfold, P. 2003. Characterisation of the South West European Marine Sites: Chesil and the Fleet SAC, SPA. . 154 pp.
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Summary This report determines the current status of Chesil and the Fleet SAC, SPA and how vulnerable (or robust) it is to contaminants and other anthropogenic pressures. Using published information and unpublished data-sets from regulatory agencies, conservation bodies and research institutes, evidence is compiled on the links between potentially harmful 'activities', environmental quality, and resultant biological consequences. This includes an evaluation of long-term change.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2001. Chesil and the Fleet: Case History. . 7 pp.
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Summary This case history has been prepared as a record of the work undertaken on Chesil and the Fleet in establishing a management scheme on the site as a means of sharing the experiences and good practice that have emerged from this.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature, Countryside Council for Wales. 2004. The Dee Estuary European Marine Site. Countryside Council for Wales. 1-252.
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Summary English Nature & the Countryside Council for Wales' draft advice given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceLangston, W.J., Chesman, B.S., Burt, G.R., Hawkins, S.J., Readman, J. & Worsfold, P. 2003. Characterisation of the South West European Marine Sites: Poole Harbour SPA. . 164 pp.
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Summary This report determines the current status of Poole Harbour SPA and how vulnerable (or robust) it is to contaminants and other anthropogenic pressures. Using published information and unpublished data-sets from regulatory agencies, conservation bodies and research institutes, evidence is compiled on the links between potentially harmful 'activities', environmental quality, and resultant biological consequences. This includes an evaluation of long-term change.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceNatural England. 2009. Comparison of the abundance and distribution of birds along the northern shore of Poole Harbour by day and by night. Natural England. 90 pp.
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Summary A comparison of diurnal bird abundance and distribution to identify any areas of the northern shore of Poole Harbour which are used more at night than in the day. Daylight surveys are found to be a reliable indicator of habitat usage at night. However, for a few species daytime patterns are not representative of night-time patterns of usage. Any future plans or projects that might impact on these species should consider their nocturnal habitat requirements.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Isle of May Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-12
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature. 2000. Isles of Scilly complex European marine site. . 1-50.
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Summary English Nature's advice given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceNatural England. 2008. Wash & North Norfolk Coast European marine site Conservation Objectives: Updating the Favourable Condition Tables - a Guidance Document. Natural England. 1-8.
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Summary Guidance update for favourable condition tables accompanying Wash & North Norfolk Coast conservation objectives. Study undertaken with EMS Management Group, Advisory Groups, scientific working groups and stakeholders.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature. 2000. Wash and North Norfolk Coast European Marine Site. English Nature. 1-150.
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Summary English Nature's advice given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCountryside Council for Wales. 2009. Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau European Marine Site. Countryside Council for Wales. 1-108.
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Summary Advice provided by the Countryside Council for Wales in fulfilment of Regulation 33 of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Loch Creran Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-10
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-11.
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Loch Laxford Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-13
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Loch nam Madadh Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-15.
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994 (as amended).
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceLangston, W.J., Chesman, B.S., Burt, G.R., Hawkins, S.J., Readman, J. & Worsfold, P. 2003. Characterisation of the South West European Marine Sites: The Severn Estuary pSAC. . 206 pp.
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Summary This report determines the current status of the Severn Estuary pSAC and how vulnerable (or robust) it is to contaminants and other anthropogenic pressures. Using published information and unpublished data-sets from regulatory agencies, conservation bodies and research institutes, evidence is compiled on the links between potentially harmful 'activities', environmental quality, and resultant biological consequences. This includes an evaluation of long-term change.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Luce Bay and Sands Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-13
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBell, J.J. 2008. Connectivity between island Marine Protected Areas and the mainland. Biological Conservation, 141 11, 2807-2820.
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Summary This paper examines several island MPAs in northern Europe as larval sources of genetic diversity and sinks that buffer, and are buffered by, the mainland. The two invertebrate species studied show little genetic connectivity with mainland populations, indicating that island MPAs may be at risk from local effects and not provide as much larval exchange with mainland populations.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceCountryside Council for Wales. 2009. Menai Strait and Conwy Bay European Marine Site. Countryside Council for Wales. 1-74.
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Summary Advice provided by the Countryside Council for Wales in fulfilment of Regulation 33 of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Monach Islands Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-9
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-16
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceSewell, J. & Hiscock, K. 2005. Effects of fishing within UK European Marine Sites: guidance for nature conservation agencies. . 195 pp.
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Summary This report reviews the effects that different types of fishing have on Special Areas of Conservation and on Special Protection Areas.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCountryside Council for Wales. 2009. Cardigan Bay European Marine Site. Countryside Council for Wales. 1-61.
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Summary Advice provided by the Countryside Council for Wales in fulfilment of Regulation 33 of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Mousa Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-13
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCountryside Council for Wales. 2009. Pembrokeshire Marine European Marine Site. Countryside Council for Wales. 1-90.
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Summary Advice provided by the Countryside Council for Wales in fulfilment of Regulation 33 of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. North Rona Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-12
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceTodd, D. 2009. North Rona Marine Biological Survey. SNH. 2 pp.
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Summary Report on the first half of a species and habitat survey of North Rona SAC, conducted by SNH and SeaStar Survey.
Study LocationNo location entered
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Papa Stour Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-12
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2001. Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast European Marine Site: Case History. . 12 pp.
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Summary This case history describes the creation of the Management Scheme for the Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast European marine site, and has been produced in order to share the experience gained from the production of the scheme.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceFrank Fortune, F. & Quigley, M. 2001. Managing the Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast European marine site. English Nature, Scottish Natural Heritage, Northumberland County Council, Life Nature Programme, Berwickshire & North Northumberland EMS. 90
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Summary Management scheme for Berwickshire & North Northumberland Coast EMS, including site descriptions, conservation objectives, human activity assessment and plans for monitoring and managing the site.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Sanday Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-14
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature. 2001. Solent European Marine Site. English Nature. 1-129.
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Summary English Nature's advice given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature, Scottish Natural Heritage. 2000. Solway European Marine Site. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-70
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Summary English Nature's and Scottish Natural Heritage's advice given in compliance with Regulation 33 (2) and in support of the implementation of The Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature, Scottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Solway Firth (additional information). Scottish Natural Heritage. 1 p.
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Summary List of additional qualifying interests for Solway Firth SAC since English Nature 2000 report.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Sound of Arisaig (Loch Ailort to Loch Ceann Traigh) Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-11
File Click here to download this reference
Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature. 2001. South Wight Maritime European Marine Site. English Nature. 1-56.
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Summary English Nature's advice given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. South-East Islay Skerries Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-9
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2001. Cardigan Bay candidate Special Area of Conservation - Case History. Countryside Council for Wales (UK Marine SACs Project). 12 pp.
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Summary This case history has been prepared as a record of the work undertaken on Cardigan Bay SAC in establishing a management scheme on the site.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. St Kilda Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-11
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnvironment and Heritage Service. 2001. Strangford Lough Management Scheme. Environment and Heritage Service, Northern Ireland. 1-64.
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Summary Management scheme for Strangford Lough, produced by the Environment and Heritage Service in consultation with relevant authorities.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Sullom Voe Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-14
File Click here to download this reference
Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Sunart Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-13
File Click here to download this reference
Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. The Vadills Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-10.
File Click here to download this reference
Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Treshnish Isles Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-12.
File Click here to download this reference
Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Yell Sound Coast Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-11
File Click here to download this reference
Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2002. Loch nam Madadh European marine site: Case History. . 8
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Summary This case history has been prepared as a record of the work undertaken on Loch nam Madadh in establishing a management scheme on the site as a means of sharing the experiences and good practice that have emerged.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCEFAS. 2001. The impact of disposal of marine dredged material on the Wash and North Norfolk Candidate Special Area of Conservation (cSAC). cSAC Review Series Report. CEFAS. 42 pp.
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Summary This review assesses the impacts of disposal of dredged material at the four current disposal sites within the Wash embayment on the Wash and North Norfolk Coast cSAC. Findings show that material deposited at the sites in question will have no adverse effects on the nearby cSAC.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceMortimer, D. 2003. Wash and North Norfolk Coast European Marine Site. Management Scheme. . 122
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Summary Management scheme for the Wash and North Norfolk Coast EMS, including SAC and SPA site descriptions, conservation objectives, human activities assessment, and advice on operations and management.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCEFAS. 2001. The impact of disposal of marine dredged material on the Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay Candidate Special Area of Conservation (cSAC). cSAC Review Series Report. CEFAS. 20 pp.
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Summary This review assesses the impacts of disposal of dredge material at the two sites of Pegwell Bay and Port Ramsgate on the Thanet Coast cSAC and the Sandwich Bay cSAC. Findings show that material deposited at the sites in question will have no adverse effects on the nearby cSACs.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceNatural England. 2007. North East Kent European Marine Sites Management Schemes 2007 to 2012. Natural England. 1-21
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Summary Management scheme for the North East Kent European marine sites, describing the geography, environment and wildlife contained therein and how they were considered in an ecosystem approach to creating a management strategy.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceNatural England. 2009. Pacific Oyster survey of the North East Kent European marine sites. Natural England. 47 pp.
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Summary A study of the expanding distribution of the introduced Pacific oyster populations in UK.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCEFAS. 2000. The impact of disposal of marine dredged material on the Flamborough Head Candidate Special Area of Conservation (cSAC). cSAC Review Series Report. CEFAS. 18 pp.
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Summary This review assesses the impacts of disposal of dredge material at Flamborough Head cSAC. Findings show that material deposited at the sites in question will have no adverse effects on the nearby cSAC.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBeukers-Stewart, B.D., Vause, B.J., Mosley, M.W.J. & Brand, A.R. 2006. Closed areas and stock enhancement of scallops. What's the catch? Journal of Shellfish Research, 25 1, 267 pp.
Summary The study focuses on the effects of the use of closed areas and stock enhancement to manage fisheries. Particularly it centres on the effects of a towed gear closure on scallop's population. The 2 km2 closed area is located off the south west coast of the Isle of Man and it was created in 1989. The present study, undertaken in 2004, revealed that in the closed area the density and biomass of great scallops, Pecten maximus, was greater than on adjacent fishing grounds. Several fishing grounds surrounding the area showed an increase in scallop recruitment and commercial catch rates.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceBeukers-Stewart, B.D., Vause, B.J., Mosley, M.W.J., Rossetti, H.L. & Brand, A.R. 2005. Benefits of closed area protection for a population of scallops. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 298 , 189-204.
Summary This study reports the effects of a 14 years fishing closure on great scallop Pecten maximus population. Results showed that the density of scallops above the minimum landing size was 7 times higher in the closed area in comparison with adjacent areas; older and bigger individuals were found within the closed area; exploitable scallop biomass was 11 times higher in the protected area. Areas surrounding the closed area showed increased densities over time as well.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Dornoch Firth and Morrich More Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-16
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2001. Morecambe Bay European Marine Site: Case History. . 12
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Summary This case history has been prepared as a record of the work undertaken in Morecambe Bay in establishing a management scheme on the European marine site as a means of sharing the experiences and good practice that has emerged from it.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceAnonymous. 2002. Papa Stour European marine site: Case History. . 11
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Summary This case history has been prepared as a record of the work undertaken on Papa Stour in establishing a management scheme on the European marine site as a means of sharing the experiences and good practice that has emerged from it.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJoint Nature Conservation Committee. 2008. Offshore Special Area of Conservation: Haig Fras. JNCC. 1-14.
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Summary Detailed habitat and species information is provided on Haig Fras as JNCC advice to DEFRA on identification of Special Areas of Conservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJoint Nature Conservation Committee. 2008. Offshore Special Area of Conservation: Stanton Banks. JNCC. 1-17.
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Summary Detailed habitat and species information is provided on Stanton Banks as JNCC advice to DEFRA on identification of Special Areas of Conservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJoint Nature Conservation Committee. 2002. Darwin Mounds proposed Special Area of Conservation. JNCC. 1-8.
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Summary Description and rationale for recommendation of Darwin Mounds as a Special Area of Conservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJoint Nature Conservation Committee. 2008. Offshore Special Area of Conservation: Darwin Mounds. SAC Selection Assessment. JNCC. 1-14.
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Summary Detailed habitat and species information is provided on the Darwin Mounds as JNCC advice to DEFRA on identification of Special Areas of Conservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceJoint Nature Conservation Committee. 2008. Offshore Special Area of Conservation: Scanner Pockmark. JNCC. 1-12.
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Summary Detailed habitat and species information is provided on Scanner Pockmark as JNCC advice to DEFRA on identification of Special Areas of Conservation.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCEFAS. 2001. The impact of disposal of marine dredged material on the South Wight Maritime and Solent Maritime Candidate Special Areas of Conservation (cSACs). cSAC Review Series Report. CEFAS.
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Summary This review assesses the impacts of disposal of dredged material at the three disposal sites within the Isle of Wight region. There is no direct evidence that disposal activities have any significant adverse effects on the integrity of the South Wight Maritime and Solent Maritime cSAC sites and the SPAs in the Solent region.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature, Countryside Council for Wales. 2005. The Severn Estuary Special Protection Area. Countryside Council for Wales. 1-63.
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Summary English Nature & the Countryside Council for Wales' advice for the Severn Estuary Special Protection Area given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature, Countryside Council for Wales. 2008. The Severn Estuary / Môr Hafren candidate Special Area of Conservation European Marine Site. English Nature, Countryside Council for Wales. 1-44.
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Summary Natural England & the Countryside Council for Wales' advice given under Regulation 33(2)(a) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994, as amended.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Eileanan agus Sgeiran Lios mór Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-9
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBurton, S. 2008. Pembrokeshire Marine Special Area of Conservation. Management Scheme. . 181
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Summary Final management scheme for Pembrokeshire Marine SAC.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferencePembrokeshire Marine Code Group. 2007. Pembrokeshire. Marine Code Codes of Conduct & Maps. Welsh Assembly Government, Milford Haven Port Authority, The National Trust, Environment Agency Wales, Pembrokeshire Coastal Forum, Countryside Council for Wales, The Crown State, Project Aware, Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, South Hook. 41
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Summary Codes of conduct and maps for marine areas of Pembrokeshire.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceRoberts, D., Smyth, D. & Browne, L. 2005. Pros and cons of small scale native oyster restoration programmes: Experiences gained in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland. Journal of Shellfish Research, 24 1, 335 pp.
Summary This paper reports on the benefits of oyster (Ostrea edulis) cultivation on Strangford Lough. This initiative, led by fishermen and funded by the EU, resulted in a dramatic increase in intertidal oysters population.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceRoberts, D. 2005. Scope for the restoration of biogenic reefs of Modiolus modiolus in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland: Dreams and realities. Journal of Shellfish Research, 24 1, 334-335.
Summary This document examines the options, requirements and possible approaches for the restoration of Modiolus reefs in Strangford Lough SAC.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature. 2001. Alde-Ore Estuary European marine site. English Nature. 1-59.
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Summary English Nature's advice given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceSuffolk Coast and Heaths. 2003. The Stour and Orwell Estuaries European Marine Site. . 1-92.
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Summary Management scheme for Stour and Orwell Estuaries, produced by the Suffolk Coast and Heaths Unit in consultation with relevant authorities.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature. 2000. Poole Harbour European Marine Site. English Nature. 1-8.
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Summary English Nature's advice given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceFowler, S. & Laffoley, D. 1993. Stability in Mediterranean-Atlantic sessile epifaunal communities at the northern limits of their range. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 172 1-2,
Summary This report shows the results of a marine monitoring programme established in Lundy and the Isles of Scilly in 1984. The aim of this study was to provide information on important marine habitats, long-term changes in community structure and the life history and ecology of species of high nature conservation interest. Many of the species and communities studied (like cup corals, certain species of sponges and soft corals) are very stable, long-lived and slow recruiting, being therefore vulnerable to damage. This species are particularly sensitive to changes in water temperature. The results of this study show the importance of abnormal climate years on species at the geographical limits of their distribution. The vulnerability of these communities has implications for reserve management.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceHiscock, H. 1994. Marine Communities at Lundy: origins, longevity and change. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 51 1-2, 183-188.
Summary Study about recruitment and longevity of species of conservation importance in Lundy. Results suggest many of the most interesting species are very long-lived, but recruit intermittently.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceLangston, W.J., Chesman, B.S. & Burt, G.R. 2006. Site characterisation of European Marine Sites: Mersey Estuary SPA. Marine Biological Association. 1-185.
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Summary This report determines the current status of the Mersey Estuary SPA, and how vulnerable (or robust) it is to contaminants and other anthropogenic pressures. Using published information and unpublished data-sets from regulatory agencies, conservation bodies and research institutes, evidence is compiled on the links between potentially harmful 'activities', environmental quality, and resultant biological consequences. This includes an evaluation of long-term change.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceChesman, B.S., Burt, G.R. & Langston, W.J. 2006. Site characterisation of European Marine Sites: Essex Estuaries European Marine Site. Marine Biological Association. 1-208.
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Summary This report determines the current status of the Essex Estuaries SAC, SPA, and how vulnerable (or robust) it is to contaminants and other anthropogenic pressures. Using published information and unpublished data-sets from regulatory agencies, conservation bodies and research institutes, evidence is compiled on the links between potentially harmful 'activities', environmental quality, and resultant biological consequences. This includes an evaluation of long-term change.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature. 2000. Essex Estuaries European marine site. English Nature. 1-136.
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Summary English Nature's advice given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEssex Estuaries Initiative. 2004. Management Scheme for the Essex Estuaries European Marine Site. . 1-38.
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Summary Management scheme for the Essex Estuaries EMS, produced by the Essex Estuaries Initiative in consultation with relevant authorities.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Faray & Holm of Faray Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-8
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Firth of Lorn Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-11
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceScottish Natural Heritage. 2006. Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-13
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Summary Advice under Regulation 33(2) of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature. 2000. Flamborough Head European marine site. English Nature. 1-57.
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Summary English Nature's advice for the Flamborough Head European marine site given under Regulation 33(2) of the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceBell, J.J., Burton, M., Bullimore, B., Newman, P.B. & Lock, K. 2006. Morphological monitoring of subtidal sponge assemblages. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 311 , 79-91.
Summary This study shows the results of a monitoring programme on Skomer Marine Nature Reserve focused on sponges. Photoquadrat data was collected and examined over a 10 yr period. Interannual variations in the morphological assemblages and abundances were detected, but sponged assemblages showed rapid recovery following declines.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedYes
Full ReferenceNewman, P., Lock, K. 2003. Skomer Marine Nature Reserve. Report 2002. Countryside Council for Wales. 1-23.
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Summary Part 1. The report summarises all aspects of the work of the MNR including a breakdown of staff fieldwork time, estate work, recreational use of the reserve, incidents, liaison, wardening, patrol, monitoring and research. Also included are results of some monitoring projects and summaries of published reports.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceNewman, P., Lock, K. 2003. Skomer Marine Nature Reserve. Report 2002. Countryside Council for Wales. 24-41.
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Summary Part 2. The report summarises all aspects of the work of the MNR including a breakdown of staff fieldwork time, estate work, recreational use of the reserve, incidents, liaison, wardening, patrol, monitoring and research. Also included are results of some monitoring projects and summaries of published reports.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceLangston, W.J., Chesman, B.S., Burt, G.R., Hawkins, S.J., Readman, J. & Worsfold, P. 2003. Characterisation of the South West European Marine Sites: Plymouth Sound and Estuaries cSAC, SPA. . 202 pp.
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Summary This report determines the current status of Plymouth Sound and Estuaries cSAC, SPA, and how vulnerable (or robust) it is to contaminants and other anthropogenic pressures. Using published information and unpublished data-sets from regulatory agencies, conservation bodies and research institutes, evidence is compiled on the links between potentially harmful 'activities', environmental quality, and resultant biological consequences. This includes an evaluation of long-term change.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceLangston, W.J., Chesman, B.S., Burt, G.R., Hawkins, S.J., Readman, J. & Worsfold, P. 2003. Characterisation of the South West European Marine Sites: The Exe Estuary SPA. . 151 pp.
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Summary This report determines the current status of the Exe Estuary SPA and how vulnerable (or robust) it is to contaminants and other anthropogenic pressures. Using published information and unpublished data-sets from regulatory agencies, conservation bodies and research institutes, evidence is compiled on the links between potentially harmful 'activities', environmental quality, and resultant biological consequences. This includes an evaluation of long-term change.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceLangston, W.J., Chesman, B.S., Burt, G.R., Hawkins, S.J., Readman, J. & Worsfold, P. 2003. Characterisation of the South West European Marine Sites: The Fal and Helford SAC. . 160 pp.
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Summary This report determines the current status of the Fal and Helford SAC and how vulnerable (or robust) it is to contaminants and other anthropogenic pressures. Using published information and unpublished data-sets from regulatory agencies, conservation bodies and research institutes, evidence is compiled on the links between potentially harmful 'activities', environmental quality, and resultant biological consequences. This includes an evaluation of long-term change.
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceEnglish Nature, Scottish Natural Heritage. 2000. Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast European Marine Site. Scottish Natural Heritage. 1-74
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Summary Advice given in compliance with Regulation 33 (2) and in support of the implementation of The Conservation (Natural Habitats & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo
Full ReferenceCountryside Council for Wales. 2009. Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries European Marine Site. Countryside Council for Wales. 1-81.
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Summary Advice provided by the Countryside Council for Wales in fulfilment of Regulation 33 of The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994
Study Location
Peer ReviewedNo